Archive | July 2020

QUOTE FOR FRIDAY:

“Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus, called SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS was first reported in Asia in February 2003. Over the next few months, the illness spread to more than two dozen countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia before the SARS global outbreak of 2003 was contained. ”

Center for Disease Control and Prevention – CDC

What is SARS?

  4 days ago

World Health Organization on this disease SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) state:

The virus identified in 2003. SARS-CoV is thought to be an animal virus from an as-yet-uncertain animal reservoir, perhaps bats, that spread to other animals (civet cats) and first infected humans in the Guangdong province of southern China in 2002.

Transmission

An epidemic of SARS affected 26 countries and resulted in more than 8000 cases in 2003. Since then, a small number of cases have occurred as a result of laboratory accidents or, possibly, through animal-to-human transmission (Guangdong, China).

Transmission of SARS-CoV is primarily from person to person. It appears to have occurred mainly during the second week of illness, which corresponds to the peak of virus excretion in respiratory secretions and stool, and when cases with severe disease start to deteriorate clinically. Most cases of human-to-human transmission occurred in the health care setting, in the absence of adequate infection control precautions. Implementation of appropriate infection control practices brought the global outbreak to an end.

Nature of the disease

Symptoms are influenza-like and include fever, malaise, myalgia, headache, diarrhoea, and shivering (rigors). No individual symptom or cluster of symptoms has proved to be specific for a diagnosis of SARS. Although fever is the most frequently reported symptom, it is sometimes absent on initial measurement, especially in elderly and immunosuppressed patients.

Cough (initially dry), shortness of breath, and diarrhoea are present in the first and/or second week of illness. Severe cases often evolve rapidly, progressing to respiratory distress and requiring intensive care.

Geographical distribution

The distribution is based on the 2002–2003 epidemic. The disease appeared in November 2002 in the Guangdong province of southern China. This area is considered as a potential zone of re-emergence of SARS-CoV.

Other countries/areas in which chains of human-to-human transmission occurred after early importation of cases were Toronto in Canada, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, Chinese Taipei, Singapore, and Hanoi in Viet Nam.

Risk for travellers

Currently, no areas of the world are reporting transmission of SARS. Since the end of the global epidemic in July 2003, SARS has reappeared four times – three times from laboratory accidents (Singapore and Chinese Taipei), and once in southern China where the source of infection remains undetermined although there is circumstantial evidence of animal-to-human transmission.

Should SARS re-emerge in epidemic form, WHO will provide guidance on the risk of travel to affected areas. Travellers should stay informed about current travel recommendations. However, even during the height of the 2003 epidemic, the overall risk of SARS-CoV transmission to travellers was low.

Prophylaxis

None. Experimental vaccines are under development.

The National Institute of Health (NIH) states:

The virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is stable for several hours to days in aerosols and on surfaces, according to a new study from National Institutes of Health, CDC, UCLA and Princeton University scientists in The New England Journal of Medicine. The scientists found that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was detectable in aerosols for up to three hours, up to four hours on copper, up to 24 hours on cardboard and up to two to three days on plastic and stainless steel. The results provide key information about the stability of SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19 disease, and suggests that people may acquire the virus through the air and after touching contaminated objects. The study information was widely shared during the past two weeks after the researchers placed the contents on a preprint server to quickly share their data with colleagues.

The NIH scientists, from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases’ Montana facility at Rocky Mountain Laboratories, compared how the environment affects SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1, which causes SARS. SARS-CoV-1, like its successor now circulating across the globe, emerged from China and infected more than 8,000 people in 2002 and 2003. SARS-CoV-1 was eradicated by intensive contact tracing and case isolation measures and no cases have been detected since 2004. SARS-CoV-1 is the human coronavirus most closely related to SARS-CoV-2. In the stability study the two viruses behaved similarly, which unfortunately fails to explain why COVID-19 has become a much larger outbreak.

The NIH study attempted to mimic virus being deposited from an infected person onto everyday surfaces in a household or hospital setting, such as through coughing or touching objects. The scientists then investigated how long the virus remained infectious on these surfaces.

The scientists highlighted additional observations from their study:

  • If the viability of the two coronaviruses is similar, why is SARS-CoV-2 resulting in more cases? Emerging evidence suggests that people infected with SARS-CoV-2 might be spreading virus without recognizing, or prior to recognizing, symptoms. This would make disease control measures that were effective against SARS-CoV-1 less effective against its successor.
  • In contrast to SARS-CoV-1, most secondary cases of virus transmission of SARS-CoV-2 appear to be occurring in community settings rather than healthcare settings.  However, healthcare settings are also vulnerable to the introduction and spread of SARS-CoV-2, and the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in aerosols and on surfaces likely contributes to transmission of the virus in healthcare settings.

The findings affirm the guidance from public health professionals to use precautions similar to those for influenza and other respiratory viruses to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2:

  • Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth.
  • Stay home when you are sick.
  • Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then throw the tissue in the trash.
  • Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces using a regular household cleaning spray or wipe.

QUOTE FOR THURSDAY:

The brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the human body. It is made up of more than 100 billion nerves that communicate in trillions of connections called synapses. The brain is made up of many specialized areas that work together: • The cortex is the outermost layer of brain cells.”

WebMD

How the brain lobe Cerebrum and knowing how it works!

brain Lobe Regions

The brain has three main parts:

1- Cerebrum, 2 – Cerbellum (below the occipal and temporal lobe is the Cerebrum), and 3 – Brain Stem (It’s under 1 & 2.)

THE REGIONS (LOBES) THAT MAKE UP THE CEREBRUM:

The cerebrum, the large, outer part of the brain, controls reading, thinking, learning, speech, emotions and planned muscle movements like walking. It also controls vision, hearing and other senses. The cerebrum is divided two cerebral hemispheres (halves): left and right. The right half controls the left side of the body. The left half controls the right side of the body.

Each hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital.  A lobe simply means a part of an organ (earlobe for example).  Each lobe controls specific functions. For example, the frontal lobe controls personality, decision-making and reasoning, while the temporal lobe controls, memory, speech, and sense of smell.

The frontal lobes are the largest lobes of the brain.  The frontal lobes are the last parts of the brain develop as a person ages and the part of the human brain that is most different from other mammals and primates.  We learn to become adults in our frontal lobes.   You choose between good and bad actions; override and suppress socially unacceptable responses; and determine similarities and differences between objects or situations. The frontal lobe is considered to be the moral center of the brain because it is responsible for advanced decision making processes. It also plays an important role in retaining emotional memories derived from the limbic system, and modifying those emotions to fit socially accepted norms.  The frontal lobes are considered our emotional control center and home to our personality. There is no other part of the brain where lesions can cause such a wide variety of symptoms (Kolb & Wishaw, 1990). The frontal lobes are involved in motor function, problem solving, spontaneity, memory, language, initiation, judgment, impulse control, and social and sexual behavior. Frontal lobe damage effects one or more of these areas depending on the severity of the damage.  The frontal lobes are extremely vulnerable to injury due to their location at the front of the cranium, proximity to the sphenoid wing and their large size. MRI studies have shown that the frontal area is the most common region of injury following mild to moderate traumatic brain injury.

The parietal lobes can be divided into two functional regions. One involves sensation and perception and the other is concerned with integrating sensory input, primarily with the visual system. The first function integrates sensory information to form a single perception (cognition).  The parietal lobes have an important role in integrating our senses. In most people the left side parietal lobe is thought of as dominant because of the way it structures information to allow us to read & write, make calculations, perceive objects normally and produce language. Damage to the dominant parietal lobe can lead to Gerstmann’s syndrome (e.g. can’t tell left from right, can’t point to named fingers), apraxia and sensory impairment (e.g. touch, pain). Damage to the non-dominant lobe, usually the right side of the brain, will result in different problems. This non-dominant lobe receives information from the occipital lobe and helps provide us with a ‘picture’ of the world around us. Damage may result in an inability to recognize faces, surroundings or objects (visual agnosia). So, someone may recognize your voice, but not your appearance (you sound like my daughter, but you’re not her). Damage to the parietal lobe depends on severity and location of the area. Because this lobe also has a role in helping us locate objects in our personal space, any damage can lead to problems in skilled movements (constructional apraxia) leading to difficulties in drawing or picking objects up.

The temporal lobes they are in the section of the brain located on the sides of the head behind the temples and cheekbones.   It’s responsible for processing auditory information from the ears (hearing).   The temporal lobes play an important role in organizing sensory input, auditory perception, language and speech production, as well as short term memory association and formation. The Temporal Lobe mainly revolves around hearing and selective listening. It receives sensory information such as sounds and speech from the ears. It is also the key to being able to comprehend, or understand meaningful speech. In fact, we would not be able to understand someone talking to us, if it wasn’t for the temporal lobe. This lobe is special because it makes sense of the all the different sounds and pitches (different types of sound) being transmitted from the sensory receptors of the ears. Temporal Lobes Kolb & Wishaw (1990) have identified eight principle symptoms of temporal lobe damage: 1) disturbance of auditory sensation and perception, 2) disturbance of selective attention of auditory and visual input, 3) disorders of visual perception, 4) impaired organization and categorization of verbal material, 5) disturbance of language comprehension, 6) impaired long-term memory, 7) altered personality and affective behavior, 8) altered sexual behavior. These can be due to tumors on the right or left side of the temporal lobe, due to seizures in the temporal lobe and if seizures regularly happen to this individual in the temporal region, which causes lack of oxygen to that area of that area of the brain it will effect one or more of the functions of that lobe which we discussed earlier, listed above.

-The last region or lobe that makes up the cerebrum is the occipal lobe. The occipital lobe is important to being able to correctly understand what our eyes are seeing. These lobes have to be very fast to process the rapid information that our eyes are sending. This is similar to how the temporal lobe makes sense of auditory information, the occipital lobe makes sense of visual information so that we are able to understand it. If our occipital lobe was impaired or injured we would not be able to correctly process visual signals, thus visual confusion would result.

 

 

QUOTE FOR WEDNESDAY:

“There’s a difference between “being stuck” and “living in the moment.” Unfortunately, for some of us, life stressors and unexpected challenges can knock us off our feet and leave us feeling stuck in that “normal reaction” to an “abnormal situation.” There’s also a difference between “being in the moment” and “moving towards the future” and these two states are not necessarily mutually exclusive and, ideally, they should not be. We must accept the circumstances with which we are faced before we can begin moving from this moment into the future that we want to create for ourselves.”

checkmark iconPsychology Today

Suzanne Degges-White Ph.D.

Feeling lost in your life? Everyone goes through this sometime in their lives and their is an answer!

  1. Drift Syndrome. Do you feel lost some times? We all do at one time or another but stop, it’s can be a temporary moment in life on what you do about it or consider it a challenge. How strong are you in fighting back in resolving it whether it be just with yourself or with another too.

 

  1. Too Busy for Passion. 

If you’re passionate about your main job, that’s great. But for many people, their job is a means to pay the bills, not an outlet for their deeply felt passions. But if we always think we’re too busy with our jobs and other parts of our daily routines to pursue anything we’re passionate about, or were passionate with and leave the other behind or in the dark then feeling incredibly bland, if not lost, is inevitable for you or just the other party involved and even both.  When it’s both lost it can be that you let this passion you both shared for each other, in your jobs, in your dreams just evaporate in the air.   I’m a firm believer that every schedule needs some time carved away for passionate pursuits, whatever they may be (keeping love in the air for a couple to music, art, writing, movies, careers, to volunteering, etc).  If you’re always too busy for passion, the proverbial “rut” awaits you.  So either get out of the rut and prevent the rut from happening b taking action and pursue some of those passions with moving on to make your life and even the others involved in your life happier to make an overall happy place (both in the environment and to be around).

  1. Can’t Locate a Purpose.

Right alongside passion is the necessity of perceiving that what you do has a purpose, a meaningful reason for being to you alone and than to others included in that passion (ex Superiors in your job). One of the side effects of the knowledge worker revolution has been that many people work on discreet tasks that appear detached from a larger sense of purpose, and their supervisors feel no obligation to connect the dots (if they even know where all of the dots are and what they mean themselves).  It’s hard to get motivated about the meaningfulness of your position when you have only a shallow sense of why what you’re doing contributes to the big picture.  This may be one more reason to seek out a passionate sidebar, because it may also offer the sense of purpose you’re missing.  Don’t let your job drown you where you let it make you feel like your nothing or in a rut.  You look at the pros and cons of it and see if it pays off to stay and if not start searching a new journey of employment.  Now of course you can’t leave the job till better opportunities start calling you in but it won’t come knocking at your door you need to get off your butt and apply yourself.  Put out resumes, go to places for new job opportunities and even planning a new business if its possibly for you.  Life is short and to live it to the fullest you have to make a choice.

  1. Social Support is Vacant.

How many of us are plugged into social networks that offer real, substantial support?  More frequently we’re socially organized around hobbies and sports.  Those networks may be great for talking over the specifics of our pass times, but they don’t offer vital connections between people who come to rely on one another.  We live our lives largely untethered from others except for very specific needs, and this is contributing to a sense of isolation — one that’s ironically growing at the same time online social networks are exploding.

  1. Cognitive Overload.

This is probably the easiest on the list to describe, because it affects all of us, and with increasing intensity. We simply have too much on our mental plates day-in and day-out to manage effectively. Without a quality external system for helping to manage it all, we can’t help but feel overloaded, and that contributes to a feeling of being out of sorts with the responsibilities and demands we face endlessly. Our brains didn’t evolve for nonstop information-driven, consumerism-driven, technology-laden societies, so we have to find tools to offload our cognitive load, or sink.

  1. Distractions Fragment Focus.

About once a day I look at my Verizon Wireless Cell Phone IG 6 and seriously consider throwing it into the garbage.  We have an abundance of ways to stay “connected” at our disposal,  but hyper-connection invariably leads to attention fragmentation.   Don’t you hate it when you go to a diner or a party (small or large) at someone’s home and constantly on the phone with texting back to others.  It makes me with many others like ignorance and why did you invite me with it being out right rude.   Do that at a diner to someone it’s like putting the newspaper up in front of the other person’s face who came out to meet you to communicate not just sit there. When we can’t focus our time and energy on any one project without being distracted by our smart phones, email, news alerts, TV and everything else that’s barreling at us, then it’s natural to feel detached from the project and, quite possibly, lost about how to get it completed. We’ve got to lasso in the distractions to get quality work or quality time spent with others accomplished; there’s simply no other way to consistently get work done and feel good about the outcomes or have quality time with someone or people with constant distractions by a cell phone, texting, or checking your emails.  My niece comes to my house for Easter and sits in the living room on or I-pad; real quality time with your family at my house and how rude.  This is where you have to think before doing something with a bad effect since what did happen is in time parents who thought this way put the white flag up and allow this behavior finding it acceptable.  Remember parents are the key mentors to their children not children are mentors to the parents.

  1. Bad Diets Fog the Mind.

By now we’re all well aware that our cultural obsession with fast food is leading to an obesity epidemic, and a slew of related health problems like diabetes, high blood pressure and coronary artery disease. But there’s also ample evidence to suggest that the amount of saturated fat, sodium and simple carbohydrates we’re ingesting is taking a toll on our ability to think clearly. Over time, deficits in speed of thought and memory can become major contributors to feeling lost, particularly if we look back on a time when those abilities were so much sharper than they are now. One more reason to stay away from the drive-thru and start making food at home.

  1. Media Representations Create False Expectations.

We always seem to fall for whatever “perfect” and “ideal” representations are produced by ever-opportunistic media minds. Whether it’s the supermodel look, or the Mercedes/BMW everyone deserves to have waiting for them in their driveways at Christmas — pick your poison — it’s all commercialized fantasy. When you find yourself trying to measure up to the fantasy and, of course, fall far short, it’s depressing. Remember it is all how you look at life.  One this is all materialistic and won’t last forever.  Two it is how you look at life, what are your priorities—a family, single life and live crazy (which is short for most unless a famous actor abusing drugs or alcohol and dies early still in life like Michael Jackson, John Belushi, etc…)  We think, “If that’s what ‘success’ looks like, then what am I?” Note that the effect is so insidious we’re usually processing that question in our minds without even consciously thinking it through. Over time those questions can lead to feeling lost. But they don’t have to if we can remind ourselves that “selling” is the prime mover of every commercialized fantasy we see.  Without a buyer, the craftiest ploys of the seller are meaningless.

Than let us look at this LOCKDOWN in areas of America especially poor New Yorker’s with this Governor Cuomo who was most definitely correct with the lock down in the beginning but now really questionable.  Than these resources as references we here from in the media, You Tube,  etc… telling us Covid is the worst Pandemic we ever had.  NOT TRUE YET, we had alone H1N1 in 1918 to 1919 called the “Swine Flu” that effected 1/3 of the world’s population (that was not even close with today’s population) causing 500 million people effected, and 50 million deaths. NO COMPARISON and I could go on with other pandemics.

So ending line don’t PANIC since it only makes you not think logically and blow things out of proportion.  You will always get through a crisis in your life but you need people, pets, exercise and other resources to help you get through the hard times of life .  The key to resolving this is the strength with the resources you have in helping you to fight back to the reasons you are lost, or dealing with a change of some type in your life, and if you know what you have to do to start making you feel better than get off your butt and take the first step.

Now if its cause you lost someone dearly in your life you need time for healing and after that 6mth to a year or sooner for others start taking action in what you need to do in making your life happier.  Remember life is short and time is precious so don’t wait till you regret that you never did anything or took action to make your life a better one.  Live your life to its fullest.

QUOTE FOR TUESDAY:

“Opioid Legislation: On December 27, 2017, State of Michigan staff drafted eight pieces of legislation aimed at addressing the ongoing opioid epidemic crisis. This legislation may have an impact on the type of pain management care you receive in the future, and how that care will be delivered. (Posted March 9, 2018).”

Michigan Medicine/University of Michigan

Poisoning

poisoning1 Poisoning3

In 2013, America’s 55 poison centers received over 3.1 million calls. Of those, about 2.2 million were calls about poison exposures ranging from carbon monoxide to snake bites to food poisoning. The rest were calls for information.

Chemicals in and around the home can poison people or pets and can cause long-term health effects. Every 13 seconds, a poison control center in the United States answers a call about a possible poisoning. More than 90% of these exposures occur in the home. Poisoning can result from medicines, pesticides, household cleaning products, carbon monoxide, and lead.

The major source of lead poisoning among U.S. children is lead-based paint and dust with lead. All houses built before 1978 are likely to contain some lead in the paint. However, it is the flaking, peeling paint that causes a problem. Other sources of lead in the home may include traditional home remedies, ceramics, toys and toy jewelry, lead-contaminated soil, lead water pipes, and lead solder used in plumbing. Lead poisoning occurs when lead builds up in the body, often over a period of months or years. Even small amounts of lead can cause serious health problems. Children under the age of 6 are especially vulnerable to lead poisoning, which can severely affect mental and physical development. At very high levels, lead poisoning can be fatal. While treatment is available for lead poisoning, taking some simple precautions can help protect yourself and your family.

Lead-based paint and lead-contaminated dust in older buildings are the most common sources of lead poisoning in children. Other sources include contaminated air, water and soil. Adults who work with batteries, do home renovations or work in auto repair shops also may be exposed to lead. It couldn’t hurt to ask you MD if you should get a lead level taken yearly or less for people who live around lead or the area having a history of it or adults in the work force working need lead products.

Lead poisoning symptoms in children

The signs and symptoms of lead poisoning in children may include:

Developmental delay-Learning difficulties-Irritability-Loss of appetite-Weight loss-Sluggishness and fatigue-Abdominal pain-Vomiting-Constipation-Hearing loss

Lead poisoning symptoms in newborns

Babies who are exposed to lead before birth may experience:

Learning difficulties & Slowed growth

 

Lead poisoning symptoms in adults

Although children are primarily at risk, lead poisoning is also dangerous for adults. Signs and symptoms in adults may include:

High blood pressure-Abdominal pain-Constipation-Joint pains-Muscle pain-Declines in mental functioning-Pain, numbness or tingling of the extremities -Headache-Memory loss-Mood disorders-Reduced sperm count, abnormal sperm-Miscarriage or premature birth in pregnant women.

ENDING LINE is knowing how to prevent leading causes of child injury, like poisoning, helps keep our children safe and secure and helps them live to their full potential.

We all want to keep our children safe and secure and help them live to their full potential. Knowing how to prevent leading causes of child injury, like poisoning, is a step toward this goal.

Every day, over 300 children in the United States ages 0 to 19 are treated in an emergency department, and two children die, as a result of being poisoned. It’s not just chemicals in your home marked with clear warning labels that can be dangerous to children.

Everyday items in your home, such as household cleaners and medicines, can be poisonous to children as well. Active, curious children will often investigate—and sometimes try to eat or drink—anything that they can get into.

Thankfully, there are ways you can help poison-proof your home and protect the children you love.

Prevention Tips

Lock them up. Keep medicines and toxic products, such cleaning solutions, in their original packaging where children can’t see or get them.

Know the number. Put the nationwide poison control center phone number, 1-800-222-1222, on or near every telephone in your home and program it into your cell phone. Call the poison control center if you think a child has been poisoned but they are awake and alert; they can be reached 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Call 911 if you have a poison emergency and your child has collapsed or is not breathing.

Read the label. Follow label directions and read all warnings when giving medicines to children.

Don’t keep it if you don’t need it. Safely dispose of unused, unneeded, or expired prescription drugs and over the counter drugs, vitamins, and supplements. To dispose of medicines, mix them with coffee grounds or kitty litter and throw them away. You can also turn them in at a local take-back program or during National Drug Take-Back events.

In general, Health and Safety Tips

Make sure your child does not have access to peeling paint or chewable surfaces painted with lead-based paint.

Use and store chemicals, household cleaning products, and pesticides according to label instructions and out of reach of children

Have gas appliances professionally installed, vented outside, and checked annually for carbon monoxide leaks.

Take all medicines as directed and store out of reach of children.

Turn on fans and open windows to help ventilate the area when using household cleaners and chemicals.

Deaths from drug overdose have been rising steadily over the past two decades and have become the leading cause of injury death in the United States.

The United States is in the midst of an opioid overdose killed more than 28,000 people in 2014, more than any year on record. At least half of all opioid overdose deaths involve a prescription opioid. More people died from drug overdoses in 2014 than in any year on record. The majority of drug overdose deaths (more than six out of ten) involved an opioid. Opioids include opiates, an older term that refers to such drugs derived from opium, including morphine itself. Other opioids are semi-synthetic and synthetic drugs such as hydrocodone, oxycodone and fentanyl; antagonist drugs such as naloxone and endogenous peptides such as the endorphins. Opioid drugs are predominantly central nervous system agents, most often used medically to relieve pain.   So again its restated to take meds as prescribed and keep out of reach for children especially (babies/children out of reach to locked up-Better safe than sorry).

 

The liver and disease.

Liver Disease 2healthy liver 2  healthy liver

Liver disease is also referred to Hepatic Disease. Liver Disease is a term that is used when there is any disturbance of the liver function that causes illness. It is a broad term to describe when more than 75% or three quarters of liver tissue needed is affected and decreased function in the liver occurs. The number one cause of liver disease is alcohol abuse in North America. They can cause liver inflammation, referred to as alcoholic hepatitis. Other causes include Cirrhosis, Cholestasis, Steatosis, Hepatitis, Viruses, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver, Hemachromatosis, Wilson’s Disease and Gilbert’s Disease.

Causes: Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is when the liver cells are replaced by permanent scar tissue as a result of chronic liver disease. It is considered the late-stage of liver disease. Cirrhosis is common among chronic alcohol abuse users where the fat accumulation occurs in the liver cells and causes scar tissue. Cholestasis is when the bile flow is obstructed from the gallbladder or duodenum. Steatosis is the term used when cholesterol and triglycerides accumulate in the liver.

Causes: Hepatitis

Hepatitis is a term used to describe the inflammation on liver cells. They can become inflamed due to infection.

There are many forms of Hepatitis:

Hepatitis A (Hep A) is a viral infection primarily spread through the fecal-oral route when small amounts of infected fecal matter are ingested. An acute inflammation of the liver occurs but there is a way to prevent this type of infection. There is a vaccine available and the best way to help prevent it is by a good hand washing.

Hepatitis B (Hep B) is spread by exposure to body fluids and can cause an acute infection. If left untreated, it can progress into a chronic inflammation and on into cirrhosis. There is also a vaccine for this form of hepatitis. Typically, the vaccine contains both Hep A and B in a combination series of doses.

Hepatitis C (Hep C) is caused by a virus different from Hep A or Hep B. It can either be “acute” or “chronic” and is primarily spread through contact with the blood of an infected person. The most common way is by sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. Before 1992, Hepatitis C was also commonly spread through blood transfusions and organ transplants which led to the start of a widespread screening of blood supplies. Another way it can be transmitted is through being born to a mother who has it. There are less common ways to contract Hepatitis C, and that’s through sharing personal care items that may have come into contact with another person’s blood (razors, toothbrushes), or having unprotected sex with a infected person. Some people are at an increased risk for Hepatitis C. Those individuals include: Children born to mothers infected with this Hep C; current injection drug users (most common way Hepatitis C is spread in the US), past injection drug users, recipients of donated blood (blood products and organs), hemodialysis patients who spent many years on dialysis for kidney failure, people who received body piercings or tattoos done with non-sterile instruments, & people with known exposure to Hepatitis C like Health care workers or recipients of blood or organs from a donor who tested positive.

Hepatitis D (Hep D) is known as “delta hepatitis” can also be “acute” or “chronic” but is uncommon in the United States. It requires the Hepatitis B virus to survive. It is transmitted through sexual contact with infected blood or blood products. There is also no vaccine available for this virus. Hepatitis E (Hep E) is caused by Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) virus. It is transmitted mainly through the fecal-oral route due to fecal contaminated drinking water.

Causes: NAFLD

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the build up of extra fat in liver cells that is not caused by alcohol. It is normal for the liver to contain some fat. liver’s weight is fat, then it NAFLD tends to develop in people who are overweight or obese or have diabetes, high cholesterol or high triglycerides. Rapid weight loss and poor eating habits also may lead to NAFLD. However, some people develop NAFLD even if they do not have any risk factors. NAFLD affects up to 25% of people in the United States. However, if more than 5% up to 10% of the liver’s weight is fat then the liver is called a fatty liver called steatosis.  Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFL) describes the accumulation of fat within the liver that can cause an inflammation and a gradual decrease in function.

 Those at risk for NAFLD? NAFLD tends to develop in people who are overweight or obese or have diabetes, high cholesterol or high triglycerides. Rapid weight loss and poor eating habits also may lead to NAFLD. However, some people develop NAFLD even if they do not have any risk factors. NAFLD affects up to 25% of people in the United States.

RISKS NAFLD may cause the liver to swell (steatohepatitis). A swollen liver may cause scarring (cirrhosis) over time and may even lead to liver cancer or liver failure.

SYMPTOMS NAFLD often has no symptoms. When symptoms occur, they may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, spider-like blood vessels, yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), itching, fluid build up and swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites), and mental confusion.

DIAGNOSIS NAFLD is initially suspected if blood tests show high levels of liver enzymes. However, other liver diseases are first ruled out through additional tests. Often, an ultrasound is used to confirm the NAFLD diagnosis.

QUOTE FOR MONDAY:

The liver is your largest internal organ. About the size of a football, it’s located mainly in the upper right portion of your abdomen — beneath the diaphragm and above your stomach — but a small portion extends into the upper left quadrant. Liver disease doesn’t always cause noticeable signs and symptoms.

MAYO CLINIC