Archive | February 2020

QUOTE FOR TUESDAY:

“Without HIV medicine, people with AIDS typically survive about 3 years. Once someone has a dangerous opportunistic illness, life expectancy without treatment falls to about 1 year. HIV medicine can still help people at this stage of HIV infection, and it can even be lifesaving. But people who start ART soon after they get HIV experience more benefits—that’s why HIV testing is so important.”

HIV.gov

What is HIV and AIDS; why safe sex when one partner is diagnosed with this? Reason: It protects the individual without HIV).

                  HIV!     HIV

 

HIV3

 

Where does HIV/AIDS come from for staters?

Well the Aids Institute states “Scientists identified a type of chimpanzee in West Africa as the source of HIV infection in humans. They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (called simian immunodeficiency virus or SIV) most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood. Over decades, the virus slowly spread across Africa and later into other parts of the world.

The earliest known case of infection with HIV-1 in a human was detected in a blood sample collected in 1959 from a man in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. (How he became infected is not known.) Genetic analysis of this blood sample suggested that HIV-1 may have stemmed from a single virus in the late 1940s or early 1950s.

We know that the virus has existed in the United States since at least the mid- to late 1970s. From 1979–1981 rare types of pneumonia, cancer, and other illnesses were being reported by doctors in Los Angeles and New York among a number of male patients who had sex with other men. These were conditions not usually found in people with healthy immune systems.

In 1982 public health officials began to use the term “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,” or AIDS, to describe the occurrences of opportunistic infections, Kaposi’s sarcoma (a kind of cancer), and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in previously healthy people. Formal tracking (surveillance) of AIDS cases began that year in the United States.

In 1983, scientists discovered the virus that causes AIDS. The virus was at first named HTLV-III/LAV (human T-cell lymphotropic virus-type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus) by an international scientific committee. This name was later changed to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus).

For many years scientists theorized as to the origins of HIV and how it appeared in the human population, most believing that HIV originated in other primates. Then in 1999, an international team of researchers reported that they had discovered the origins of HIV-1, the predominant strain of HIV in the developed world. A subspecies of chimpanzees native to west equatorial Africa had been identified as the original source of the virus. The researchers believe that HIV-1 was introduced into the human population when hunters became exposed to infected blood.”

HIV is a lenti virus which is a subgroup of the retrovirus. For starters they affect the white blood cells (WBCs) in this sense:

We have types of WBC’s and one type is called CD4. That is the cell the HIV binds to when it gets in your blood stream. Another name for them is T-helper cells. CD4 cells are made in the spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus gland, which are part of the lymph or infection-fighting system. CD4 cells move throughout your body, helping to identify and destroy germs such as bacteria and viruses.  Without going into specific medical terminology there is replication of this virus in the DNA and RNA killing out the normal white blood cell type of CD4 and other things like macrophages which are reproduced into CD4 cells with the virus with the body not knowing or able to detect this error in DNA and RNA of the CD4 white blood cells which ending line allows the immunity to go down. Remember the HIV virus binds to the surface of the CD4 cells. The virus entering CD4 cells now allows them to become a part of CD4 replicated cells regarding their make up due to changes made in the DNA and RNA cause the virus has invaded the bloodstream. As CD4 cells multiply to fight infection, they also make more copies of HIV now. Continuing to replicate, leading to a gradual decline of CD4 cells in decreasing that individuals immunity to infection.

There are two types of HIV have been characterized: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is the virus that was initially discovered and termed both LAV and HTLV-III. It is more virulent, more infective and is the cause of the majority of HIV infections globally. The lower infectivity of HIV-2 compared to HIV-1 implies that fewer of those exposed to HIV-2 will be infected per exposure. Because of its relatively poor capacity for transmission, HIV-2 is largely confined to West Africa.

The CD4 count measures the number of CD4 cells in a sample of your blood drawn by a needle from a vein in your arm. Along with other tests, the CD4 count helps tell how strong your immune system is. By knowing this when the blood test is done the CD4 helps the following for the doctor

-it indicates the stage of your HIV disease

-it guides the treatment

– it predicts how your disease may progress.

**Keeping your CD4 count high can reduce complications of HIV disease and extend your life.**

HIV is transmitted via the exchange of body fluids—such as pre-ejaculate fluid, semen, vaginal fluid secretions, blood, or breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells.

Within a month or 2 of contracting HIV, about 40 to 90-percent of those afflicted suffer from flu-like symptoms including fever, fatigue, achy muscles, swollen lymph glands, sore throat, headache, skin rash, dry cough, nausea, rapid weight loss, night sweats, frequent yeast infections (for women), cold sores, and eventually, pneumonia. Luckily, many individuals who are diagnosed early can live a long, productive life with HIV thanks to a combination of highly active anti-retroviral drug therapy, which prevents to progression to AIDS.

So what is the answer to prevent this from happening by doing a few things:

-In safe sex from the front (through the vagina) or back (through the rectum-buttock); no matter what sex preference you are.

-When you use various sex partners get checked every 6 months to a year and have sex safely.

-The + HIV pt or now AIDS pt be compliant with the medications and RX the M.D. gives you if you choose to do so, unfortunately like many who chose to do unsafe sex in getting this or worse those getting it through blood with transfusions or needle sticks, or even sex partners who weren’t told their sex partner had it. There are the those who got this disease innocently with not doing unsafe sex but for that percentage it is much lower than those who caused this disease to go up higher in the USA and all over for being foolish. To all the people in the world let’s deal with this disease safely for yourselves and others around you. Let us all make a safer world for this is one small way which is greater than you may think.

QUOTE FOR MONDAY:

“In late 2019, a new coronavirus emerged in central China to cause disease in humans. Cases of this disease, known as COVID-19, have since been reported across China and in many other countries around the globe. On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the virus represents a public health emergency of international concern, and on January 31, 2020, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services declared it to be a health emergency for the United States.”

KFF Global Health Policy

Corona VIrus

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans.

Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people.  Detailed investigations found that SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats to humans and MERS-CoV from dromedary camels to humans. Several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans.

Common signs of infection include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death.

Standard recommendations to prevent infection spread include regular hand washing, covering mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing, thoroughly cooking meat and eggs. Avoid close contact with anyone showing symptoms of respiratory illness such as coughing and sneezing.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. All three of these viruses have their origins in bats; but also SARS-CoV is transmitted from civet cats to humans.  Commonly called civet cats, civets are not cats. In fact, they are more closely related to mongooses than they are to cats.  The sequences from U.S. patients are similar to the one that China initially posted, suggesting a likely single, recent emergence of this virus from an animal reservoir.

CDC is closely monitoring an outbreak of respiratory illness caused by a novel (new) coronavirus. The outbreak first started in Wuhan, China, but cases have been identified in a growing number of other international locations, including the United States.

Most Important to know is standard recommendations to prevent infection spread include regular hand washing, covering mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing, thoroughly cooking meat and eggs. Avoid close contact with anyone showing symptoms of respiratory illness such as coughing and sneezing.

 

QUOTE ON THE WEEKEND:

Every day, seven out of 10 deaths are caused by chronic diseases. Studies show that preventable chronic conditions cost the U.S. nearly $347 billion in 2010. It is a crisis that consumes 86 percent of our nation’s total health care expenditures. The daily toll is alarming, costly, and most importantly, preventable

NCBI

The crisis is clear–chronic diseases are crushing healthcare in America.

Chronic diseases are crushing healthcare.

Our healthcare system is good at treating short-term problems, such as broken bones and infections. Medical advances are helping people live longer. But obesity is reaching epidemic proportions. The population is aging. We need to do a much better job managing chronic diseases.

Chronic conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, lung disease, and Alzheimer’s disease take a heavy toll on health. Chronic conditions also cost vast amounts of money. The trends are going in the wrong direction:

  • Obesity increases the risk of developing conditions, such as diabetes and heart disease. The rate of obesity in adults has doubled in the last 20 years. It has almost tripled in kids ages 2-11. It has more than tripled in children ages 12-19.
  • Without big changes, 1 in 3 babies born today will develop diabetes in their lifetime.
  • Average healthcare costs for someone who has one or more chronic conditions is 5 times greater than for someone without any chronic conditions.
  • Chronic diseases account for $3 of every $4 spent on healthcare. That’s nearly $7,900 for every American with a chronic disease.
  • These chronic diseases drive healthcare costs at an alarming annual rate:
  • Heart Disease and Stroke: $432 billion/year.
  • Diabetes: $174 billion/year.
  • Lung Disease: $154 billion/year.
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: $148 billion/year.The human cost of chronic diseases cannot be ignored:
  • The Human Cost
    • Chronic diseases cause 7 out of every 10 deaths.
    • Chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and heart disease are the leading causes of disability and death in the US.
    • About 25% of people with chronic diseases have some type of activity limitation. This includes difficulty or needing help with personal tasks such as dressing or bathing. It may also mean being restricted from work or attending school.
    • Today, Americans suffering from chronic diseases face rising healthcare costs. They also receive lower quality care and have fewer options.
    • Health insurance co-pays and out-of-pocket expenses continue to rise. In many cases, choices and care are limited.
    • The disabling and long-term symptoms that often come with chronic diseases add to extended pain and suffering. This decreases the overall quality of life.The financial and human costs of chronic diseases can no longer be ignored.
    • There is a way we can prevent this and it would be keeping your weight ideal for your height within the therapeutic body mass index range (calculate it for free online).  If you need to lose weight you’ve come to the right blog.  Do it through diet, exercise balanced with rest and practicing routine healthy habits that prone you to having a healthy body overall which prevents disease.  So many diseases are due to these factors not practiced daily =  good diet with exercise, healthy habits and a therapeutic weight for your height.  If we had most of American citizens living this way certain diseases would be decreased terribly helping our country out with this economy of ours with the health care system.  If you need assistance in reaching these healthy practices   Do you want a better fit body or even an overall healthier family including grandchildren to even our country than take the action NOW.  For your goal in playing a part in living healthier and spreading the good news would benefit you and all around us.  Also, for the next decade & generation to be healthier will help Americans holistically in their lives all around (including our health care showing a spread of disease in lower percentage due to healthier dieting and activity choices by our people, who are so important in helping to decide where the health of the present and future of the US citizens lies.  Should it take our government to make a move (finally after so many years)?   I know I wouldn’t want them making the last move in our society and if you want to take part in joining me (at almost 50 y/o) than go to healthyusa.tsfl.com and be a part of making our home a healthy USA.
    • We must face the epidemic of chronic diseases. If we don’t, the human costs will continue to soar. We might even face a lack of available or affordable care when it is needed most.

 

    • REFERENCES:
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chronic Disease Overview: Costs of Chronic Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/overview.htm. Accessed July 24, 2007.
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Overweight and Obesity. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/trend/index.htm. Accessed July 24, 2007.
    • American Diabetes Association. The Dangerous Toll of Diabetes. American Diabetes Association Web site. Available at http://diabetes.org/diabetes-statistics/dangerous-toll.jsp. Accessed May 18, 2007.
    • Partnership for Solutions. Chronic Conditions: Making the Case for Ongoing Care, September 2004 Update. Partnership for Solutions Web site. Available at http://www.partnershipforsolutions.org/DMS/files/ chronicbook2004.pdf. Accessed July 24, 2007.
    • Mensah G, Brown D. An overview of cardiovascular disease burden in the United States. Health Aff 2007; 26:38-48.
    • American Diabetes Association. Direct and Indirect Costs of Diabetes in the United States. American Diabetes Association Web site. Available at http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-statistics/ cost-of-diabetes-in-HYPERLINK “http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-statistics/cost-of-diabetes-in-us.jsp”us.jsp. Accessed September 20, 2007.
    • Alzheimer’s Association. Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures 2007. Alzheimer’s Association Web site. Available at http://www.alz.org/national/documents/Report_2007FactsAndFigures.pdf.

QUOTE FOR THE FRIDAY:

Viruses are tinier than bacteria. … All viruses have is a protein coat and a core of genetic material, either RNA or DNA. Unlike bacteria, viruses can’t survive without a host. They can only reproduce by attaching themselves to cells.  Remember antibiotics are only good in treating bacterial infections.”

MAYO CLINIC

Bacterial versus Viral Infections.

As you might think, bacterial infections are caused by bacteria, and viral infections are caused by viruses. Perhaps the most important distinction between bacteria and viruses is that antibiotic drugs usually kill bacteria, but they aren’t effective against viruses.

Bacteria

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that thrive in many different types of environments. Some varieties live in extremes of cold or heat. Others make their home in people’s intestines, where they help digest food. Most bacteria cause no harm to people, but there are exceptions.

Infections caused by bacteria include:

  • Strep throat
  • Tuberculosis
  • Urinary tract infections

Inappropriate use of antibiotics has helped create bacterial diseases that are resistant to treatment with different types of antibiotic medications.

Viruses

Viruses are even smaller than bacteria and require living hosts — such as people, plants or animals — to multiply. Otherwise, they can’t survive. When a virus enters your body, it invades some of your cells and takes over the cell machinery, redirecting it to produce the virus.

Diseases caused by viruses include:

  • Chickenpox
  • AIDS
  • Common colds

In some cases, it may be difficult to determine whether a bacterium or a virus is causing your symptoms. Many ailments — such as pneumonia, meningitis and diarrhea — can be caused by either bacteria or viruses.

Bacterial and viral infections have many things in common. Both types of infections are caused by microbes — bacteria and viruses, respectively — and spread by things such as:

  • Coughing and sneezing.
  • Contact with infected people, especially through kissing and sex.
  • Contact with contaminated surfaces, food, and water.
  • Contact with infected creatures, including pets, livestock, and insects such as fleas and ticks.

Microbes can also cause:

  • Acute infections, which are short-lived.
  • Chronic infections, which can last for weeks, months, or a lifetime.
  • Latent infections, which may not cause symptoms at first but can reactivate over a period of months and years.

Most importantly, bacterial and viral infections, can cause mild, moderate, and severe diseases.

Throughout history, millions of people have died of diseases such as bubonic plague or the Black Death, which is caused by Yersinia pestis bacteria, and smallpox, which is caused by the variola virus. In recent times, viral infections have been responsible for two major pandemics: the 1918-1919 “Spanish flu” epidemic that killed 20-40 million people, and the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic that killed an estimated 1.5 million people worldwide in 2013 alone.Bacterial and viral infections can cause similar symptoms such as coughing and sneezing, fever, inflammation, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, and cramping — all of which are ways the immune system tries to rid the body of infectious organisms. But bacterial and viral infections are dissimilar in many other important respects, most of them due to the organisms’ structural differences and the way they respond to medications.

The Differences Between Bacteria and Viruses

Although bacteria and viruses are both too small to be seen without a microscope, they’re as different as giraffes and goldfish.Bacteria are relatively complex, single-celled creatures with a rigid wall and a thin, rubbery membrane surrounding the fluid inside the cell. They can reproduce on their own. Fossilized records show that bacteria have existed for about 3.5 billion years, and bacteria can survive in different environments, including extreme heat and cold, radioactive waste, and the human body.

Most bacteria are harmless, and some actually help by digesting food, destroying disease-causing microbes, fighting cancer cells, and providing essential nutrients. Fewer than 1% of bacteria cause diseases in people.

Viruses are tinier: the largest of them are smaller than the smallest bacteria. All they have is a protein coat and a core of genetic material, either RNA or DNA. Unlike bacteria, viruses can’t survive without a host. They can only reproduce by attaching themselves to cells. In most cases, they reprogram the cells to make new viruses until the cells burst and die. In other cases, they turn normal cells into malignant or cancerous cells.

Also unlike bacteria, most viruses do cause disease, and they’re quite specific about the cells they attack. For example, certain viruses attack cells in the liver, respiratory system, or blood. In some cases, viruses target bacteria.

Diagnosis of Bacterial and Viral Infections

You should consult your doctor if you think you have a bacterial or viral infection. Exceptions include the common cold, which is usually not life-threatening.

In some cases, it’s difficult to determine the origin of an infection because many ailments — including pneumonia, meningitis, and diarrhea — can be caused by either bacteria or viruses. But your doctor often can pinpoint the cause by listening to your medical history and doing a physical exam.

If necessary, he or she also can order a blood or urine test to help confirm a diagnosis, or a “culture test” of tissue to identify bacteria or viruses. Occasionally, a biopsy of affected tissue may be required.

QUOTE FOR THURSDAY:

“Dogs provide many important psychological and physical benefits for their owners, and are positive sources of social support, as well as motivating people to get out and exercise more. Exercise boosts energy levels, quality of sleep, self-esteem, and general mood, as well as reducing the risk of major illnesses (including depression) and chronic diseases. Dog ownership is also proven to help build immunity to germs and reduce the development of allergies; a recent study showed that the risk of eczema for children at 4 years old is significantly reduced if a dog lives in the house.”

Companions for Heroes

Dogs are more than great pets, they aid in our health.

    

  

Goldsmiths College released a study that showed more dogs will approach someone who’s crying or in distress than someone who is not. This shows that dogs are empathetic and are eager to help comfort humans in pain.

Their sense of smell can do even more than we think; dogs can also detect low blood sugar in their master. They will either alert the person that the sugar has dropped or, if a diabetic attack has already occurred, will bark and bark and bark in an attempt to alert somebody to come help, thus working to save the diabetic’s life.

Some dogs are also able to detect seizures in humans.  Recent research has shown certain dogs are able to warn seizure patients that they’re going to experience an attack, sometimes hours before it happens. Nobody yet knows how they do it, or why only certain dogs can do it. They also can’t be trained to do it, so if you feel you need a seizure-sniffing dog, you need to make sure you have yourself a natural.

Due to their incredible sense of smell, dogs have shown anywhere from 70 to 99% accuracy (depending on the study) when tasked with detecting lung cancer in a nearby patient.

Fibromyalgia is a debilitating disease that can leave its victim in constant pain. Studies have shown that the Xolo dog’s body temperature can be used as a kind of therapeutic heating pad, due to it being a hairless species. Of course, unlike heating pads, a Xolo will bond with you, snuggle with you and keep you warm as long as you need, leading to both external comfort and internal happiness.

In a surprising twist, it might actually be beneficial to get a dog for your baby, even if they’re allergic. Studies have shown that children under the age of one who live with a dog are much less likely to develop the chronic, and annoying, skin condition called eczema.

Dogs can highly make humans more social.  The British Medical Journal has concluded that dogs act as “social catalysts,” who help people get out more, approach others more easily, and overall reduce isolation. This is actually just as important as the basic companionship that dogs provide, as human social support is beneficial to human health and the dog.

Simply by being themselves, dogs have been shown to help reduce PTSD among soldiers. In addition to providing the usual doggie companionship, they have been shown to help sufferers come out of their shells, be less numb and angry, and improve their social life as well.

A dog kissing you obviously feels wonderful, but it might actually have physical benefits too. Studies have shown that saliva, both the human and doggie variety, can help stimulate nerves and muscles, and get oxygen moving again, which is the secret ingredient in helping wounds to heal. In short, “licking your wounds” is not just a cliché after all.

Almost certainly due to the positive vibes and good feelings that dogs bring out of their masters, even in the worst of times, studies have found that older people who own dogs average at least one less doctor appointment per year than those who do not.

Not that they are the cure but preliminary studies by the American Heart Association are revealing that dog owners have less risk of heart disease than those without dogs. The reasons given are the exercise that owners get when walking their dogs, plus the presence of the dog helps the owner deal with stress better. The evidence is mostly anecdotal right now, but dog owners know that it’s all true.

Day-to-day depression, or even more serious chronic depression, is easier to handle with the love of a dog, studies show. Simply by having them around, and knowing that even at our worst, somebody loves us unconditionally and is eager to see us happy again, we’re given a reason to get up and keep going.

Autistic children often find the world very stressful, in ways that the non-autistic can’t understand. Luckily, a dog can. Studies are showing that bringing a therapy dog into an autistic household helps to reduce the amount of cortisol (a stress hormone) in the autistic child’s body. This both calms the child down and shows him that he has a friend.

Bullying has been a huge problem for a long time, and people are finally doing something about it. Dogs, too. Experimental programs have been launched that bring dogs into schools to promote empathy, with the lesson that you shouldn’t treat people badly, because you wouldn’t do it to a dog. Thus far, kids have been able to make the connection, which will hopefully continue to be the case.

Dogs have shown that they can help keep dementia sufferers on schedule, reminding them when its time for medicine and when to see the doctor. In addition, when the owner experiences frustration over the state of their mind, the “dementia dog” is right there to support them, comfort them, and remind them that someone’s always there for them.

AREN’T DOGS AMAZING!!