Archive | April 2022


“An elbow fracture is a fracture at the tip of the elbow. This can happen as a result of trauma such as a direct blow, falling on the elbow or falling on an outstretched hand.  There are three main types of elbow fractures = olecranon fracture (The pointy tip of your elbow), radial head fracture (it connects with the humerus – the upper arm bone), distal humerus fracture (it connects the shoulder to the elbow).  Regarding how common it this fracture; elbow fractures are quite common, especially among children. According to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 10% of all bone fractures affecting children are elbow fractures.”.

Cleveland Clinic (

Why ever would someone call this the funny bone; especially if fractured.

Updated the article on 4/25/22 by Elizabeth Lynch RN

In human anatomy, the ulnar nerve is a nerve that runs near the ulna bone. The ulnar collateral ligament of elbow joint is in relation with the ulnar nerve. The nerve is the largest unprotected nerve in the human body (meaning unprotected by muscle or bone), so injury is common. This nerve is directly connected to the little finger, and the adjacent half of the ring finger, innervating the palmar side of these fingers, including both front and back of the tips, perhaps as far back as the fingernail beds.

This nerve can cause an electric shock-like sensation by striking the medial epicondyle of the humerus from posteriorly, or inferiorly with the elbow flexed. The ulnar nerve is trapped between the bone and the overlying skin at this point. This is commonly referred to as bumping one’s “funny bone“. This name is thought to be a pun, based on the sound resemblance between the name of the bone of the upper arm, the “humerus” and the word “humorous”.  Alternatively, according to the Oxford English Dictionary it may refer to “the peculiar sensation experienced when it is struck”.

A distal humerus fracture is a break in the lower end of the upper arm bone (humerus), one of the three bones that come together to form the elbow joint. A fracture in this area can be very painful and make elbow motion difficult or impossible.

Most distal humerus fractures are caused by some type of high-energy event—such as receiving a direct blow to the elbow during a car collision. In an older person who has weaker bones, however, even a minor fall may be enough to cause a fracture.

Your elbow is a joint made up of three bones:

  • The humerus (upper arm bone)
  • The radius (forearm bone on the thumb side)
  • The ulna (forearm bone on the pinky side)

The elbow joint bends and straightens like a hinge. It is also important for rotation of the forearm; that is, the ability to turn your hand palm up (like accepting change from a cashier) or palm down (like typing or playing the piano).

A distal humerus fracture occurs when there is a break anywhere within the distal region (lower end) of the humerus. The bone can crack just slightly or break into many pieces (comminuted fracture). The broken pieces of bone may line up straight or may be far out of place (displaced fracture).

In some cases, the bone breaks in such a way that bone fragments stick out through the skin or a wound penetrates down to the bone. This is called an open fracture. Open fractures are particularly serious because, once the skin is broken, infection in both the wound and the bone is more likely to occur. Immediate treatment is required to prevent infection.

Distal humerus fractures are uncommon; they account for just about 2 percent of all adult fractures. They can occur on their own, with no other injuries, but can also be a part of a more complex elbow injury.


Obviously falls, but different ways.  Falls can be major or minor falls.

One is a direct fall on the elbow, the arm extended out and hits against something even when falling and trying to break the fall.

Also a direct blow to the area like from a MVA with the elbow hitting the dash board or even hit by a baseball bat or an item like it whether accidentally or done intentionally.

Falling on an outstretched arm with the elbow held tightly to brace against the fall. In this situation, the triceps muscle, which attaches to the olecranon, can pull a piece of the bone off of the ulna. Injuries to the ligaments around the elbow may occur with this type of injury, as well.

Fracture of the elbow is due to:

  • Falling directly on the elbow
  • Receiving a direct blow to the elbow from something hard, like a baseball bat, or a dashboard or car door during a vehicle collision.
  • Falling on an outstretched arm with the elbow held tightly to brace against the fall. In this situation, the triceps muscle, which attaches to the olecranon, can pull a piece of the bone off of the ulna. Injuries to the ligaments around the elbow may occur with this type of injury, as well.

The signs and symptoms of a fracture usually include:

Signs and Symptoms for a any distal humerus fracture or any fracture may be very painful and can prevent you from moving your elbow or area fractured.

  • Swelling due to blood running to the area.  RX:  This is the logic of putting ice to the area for 24-48 hrs intermittently to cause vasoconstriction of blood to the area to decrease the swelling; helping this would be raise the fracture limb above the heart causing blood by gravity back to the heart which furthers decrease the swelling.
  • Intense pain and not able to move the elbow at all.
  • Bruising caused by old blood in the area (think of just twisting your wrist or elbow or ankle and you know you see bruising well expect it with fractures).
  • Tenderness to the touch due to the bone broken.
  • Stiffness due to the swelling and injury being painful.
  • A feeling of instability in the joint, as if your elbow is going to “pop out” due to simply the bone is broken.  Just like a beam broken holding a part of a house up and due to the brake that area of the home starts falling.

Prognosis for most arm fractures is very good if treated early.

Complications may include:

  • Uneven growth. Because a child’s arm bones are still growing, a fracture in a growth plate — the area where growth occurs near each end of a long bone — can interfere with that bone’s normal growth.
  • Osteoarthritis. Fractures that extend into a joint can cause arthritis there years later.
  • Stiffness. The immobilization required to heal a fracture in the upper arm bone can sometimes result in painfully limited range of motion of the elbow or shoulder.
  • Bone infection. If any part of your broken bone protrudes through your skin, it may be exposed to germs that can cause infection. Prompt treatment of this type of fracture is critical.
  • Nerve or blood vessel injury. If the upper arm bone (humerus) fractures into two or more pieces, the jagged ends may injure nearby nerves and blood vessels. Seek immediate medical attention if you notice any numbness or circulation problems.
  • Compartment syndrome. Excessive swelling of the injured arm can cut off the blood supply to part of the arm, causing pain and numbness. Typically occurring 24 to 48 hours after the injury, compartment syndrome is a medical emergency that requires surgery. It can also be caused by a too-tight cast.


Treatment for fractures are simply splints to casts and in complex fractures and penetrating fractures (bone going through the skin) would be surgery.

Treatment for a distal humerus fracture usually involves surgery to restore the normal anatomy and motion of the elbow.





“Many people have pain in the base of their foot. This could be due to overuse of one of many different structures in your foot. Common examples are sesamoiditis (inflammation of structures surrounding two small bones under the big toe joint) and plantar fasciitis (overuse of a ligament-like structure that runs underneath the length of the foot).

Pain on standing first thing in the morning is a classic symptom of plantar fasciitis. It is one of the most common problems experienced by runners, accounting for about 10 per cent of running injuries. It is also common among middle-aged people, particularly if they are overweight. It often starts with low-grade pain in the arch or heel of the foot and can get worse over weeks or months.”

Better Health Channel (

Foot Health Awareness Month – Tips for happy healthy feet!


10000 steps=5 miles

April is National Foot Health Awareness Month and research shows that approximately 20 percent of Americans experience at least one foot problem each year. These issues can be the result of an underlying health problem such as obesity, diabetes, or peripheral neuropathy.

Today Dr. Amanda Bartell and Dr. Andrew Bartell of North Florida Foot & Ankle Center in Jacksonville, FL, Southside, and Duval County are sharing their tips for happy, healthy feet!

  • Examine your feet each day, using a mirror – if needed – to inspect the bottom of your feet for cracks, peeling, injuries or dry skin. This is particularly important if you have diabetes to avoid a non-healing wound.
  • Wear shoes in public areas where your feet can be scratched or cut, leading to infection, athlete’s foot or plantar warts.
  • Replace the shoes you wear to exercise every six months or 500 miles to avoid heal and foot pain when the inside of the shoe begins to lose support.
  • Stretch your ankles, lower legs and feet daily and before any activity to avoid injury.
  • Thoroughly dry your feet and between your toes after bathing to reduce the risk of fungal infections. Follow up by applying a good moisturizer.
  • Don’t leave polish on nails all the time as it can lead to fungal toenails.
  • Apply sunscreen on ankles and between toes to avoid sunburn and guard against skin cancer.
  • There is a good chance you will not wear the same size in shoes your entire life, so have them measured on a regular basis.
  • Maintain a healthy weight because extra weight puts pressure on the feet, often causing heel or foot pain, circulatory problems, arthritis, and stress fractures.
  • Try to wear shoes with good support and a low heel and use custom orthotics to provide proper arch support.


“Infertility in women is often caused by problems with ovulation, the cervix or uterus, or the fallopian tubes. Perhaps the most important risk factor for female infertility is age. Women’s ability to get pregnant declines with age; female fertility declines gradually starting around 35 years of age then declines more dramatically after 40 years of age.   According to the latest WHO statistics, approximately 50–80 million people worldwide sufer from infertility, and male factors are responsible for approximately 20–30% of all infertility cases.  Spermatogenesis is one of the most crucial stages in male fertility.The slightest deviation from the natural course of spermatogenesis can lead to infertility in men.”

National Library of Medicine



“Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) happens when you suddenly start to speak with a different accent. It’s most common after a head injury, stroke, or some other type of damage to the brain.  Although it’s extremely rare, it’s a real condition. Only about 100 people have been diagnosed with this condition since the first known case came to light in 1907. Some examples of FAS include an Australian woman who developed a French-sounding accent after a car accident. In 2018, an American woman in Arizona woke up one day with a mixture of Australian, British, and Irish accents after falling asleep the night before with a headache. It doesn’t just affect English speakers. FAS can happen to anyone and has been documented in cases and languages all over the world.”


Foreign Accent Syndrome (FAS)

Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) is speech disorder that causes a sudden change to speech so that a native speaker is perceived to speak with a “foreign” accent. FAS is most often caused by damage to the brain caused by a stroke or traumatic brain injury. Other causes have also been reported including multiple sclerosis and conversion disorder and in some cases no clear cause has been identified.

Although it’s extremely rare, it’s a real condition.

Speech may be altered in terms of timing, intonation, and tongue placement so that is perceived as sounding foreign. Speech remains highly intelligible and does not necessarily sound disordered.

FAS has been documented in cases around the world, including accent changes from Japanese to Korean, British English to French, American-English to British English, and Spanish to Hungarian.

Some common speech changes associated with FAS include:

  • Fairly predictable errors
  • Unusual prosody, including equal and excess stress (especially in multi-syllabic words)
  • Consonant substitution, deletion, or distortion
  • Voicing errors (i.e. bike for pike)
  • Trouble with consonant clusters
  • Vowel distortions, prolongations, substitutions (i.e. “yeah” pronounced as “yah”)
  • “uh” inserted into words

How this is diagnosed:

Language skills will be tested. This can be done with:

  • Reading, writing, and language comprehension tests
  • Recordings to analyze speech patterns

Images will be taken of the brain. This can be done with:

  • MRI scan
  • CT scan
  • Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan
  • PET scan

The brain’s electrical activity may be measured. This can be done with an electroencephalogram (EEG).

FAS is rare. A team of specialists may be needed to make the diagnosis.

Treatment for this condition:

The goal of treatment is to manage symptoms. Choices are:

  • Speech therapy to learn how to better move the lips and jaw during speech
  • Counseling to help cope with FAS

How to prevent this rare condition is to do the following:

There are no known guidelines to prevent this health problem. Stroke is the most common cause. People who are at risk for stroke should take steps to lower their risk.


“Underage drinking is a serious public health problem in the United States. Alcohol is the most widely used substance among America’s youth, and drinking by young people poses enormous health and safety risks. In 2019, about 24.6 percent of 14- to 15-year-olds reported having at least 1 drink. In 2019, 7.0 million young people ages 12 to 20 reported that they drank alcohol beyond “just a few sips” in the past month.  People ages 12 to 20 drink 4.0 percent of all alcohol consumed in the United States. Although youth drink less often than adults do, when they do drink, they drink more. More than 90 percent of all alcoholic drinks consumed by young people are consumed through binge drinking.  The consequences of underage drinking can affect everyone—regardless of age or drinking status. Either directly or indirectly, we all feel the effects of the aggressive behavior, property damage, injuries, violence, and deaths that can result from underage drinking. This is not simply a problem for some families—it is a nationwide concern.”

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism NIH



“On-time vaccination throughout childhood is essential because it helps provide immunity before children are exposed to potentially life-threatening diseases. Vaccines are tested to ensure that they are safe and effective for children to receive at the recommended ages.”

Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC

Immunization Week – Why are vaccines are vitally important?



Most parents are familiar with the “childhood vaccination schedule” – a detailed plan for when children should get certain immunizations that help protect them from preventable diseases. But as the list of recommended vaccines has grown over the years, so too has the list of questions parents have about vaccinations and vaccination schedules.

Those who wonder why vaccines are so vitally important is because they prevent so many diseases that in the past we couldn’t if you could save your child’s life you would well this is one way in doing it.

While some parents wonder if the number of vaccines and doses kids receive can ever be too much for their bodies to handle, the short answer is: No. Extensive research has been done to ensure the safety of vaccines for young immune systems. Kids are exposed to germs (or antigens) every day. The amount that they’re exposed to by getting a vaccine is just a tiny fraction of the antigens they encounter daily.

Know this to understand vaccines; a vaccine is a dead, or weakened version, or part of the germ that causes the disease in question. When children are exposed to a disease in vaccine form, their immune system, which is the body’s germ-fighting machine, is able to build up antibodies that protect them from contracting the disease if and when they are exposed to the actual disease.

Immunizing helps to protect the health of our community – especially those who can’t be immunized, like children who are too young or those who can’t for medical reasons.  Vaccine schedules recommended by agencies and organizations, such as the CDC, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians cover about 14 different diseases.

Oftentimes, day care centers, schools and sports teams require proof of immunizations in order for your child to participate. Keeping up with their shots can help make sure they don’t miss out. If you’re planning on taking your child in for a back-to-school physical exam, this can be a great time to get them caught up on their shots. Or you can schedule a separate immunization-only appointment.

Stanford Children’s Health states “Over the years, vaccines have generated some controversy over safety, but no convincing evidence of harm has been found. And although children can have a reaction to any vaccine, the important thing to know is that the benefits of vaccinations far outweigh the possible side effects.”.  So think over getting vaccinations for your child if you against them based on the proof of what they can do.  Always check with your physician if you have any questions.