”  Glioblastoma grows very aggressively because it creates its own blood supply and it destroys normal brain tissue rapidly. There are treatment options available that can ease the symptoms. Depending on where the brain tumor is located, different signs are more obvious than others because your brain affects different parts of the body.  To keep a close eye on the tumor your Oncologist will have you every month to every 3 months or more depending on how the tumor is growing.”

Fact&Health (10 Signs and Symptoms of Glioblastoma @

Glioblastoma (s) – what it is, what it effects, signs and symptoms, the speed of its metastasis, & survival rate!

Our central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain, the spinal cord, and the retina. It is the command center of the body, powering everything that we do and interpreting everything around us.

This system continues developing throughout the entire human lifetime, constantly creating and eliminating neurons to keep the standard nervous system functioning refreshed.

The central nervous system works by taking in the information collected by the peripheral nervous system and redistributing information based on that. It controls everything from a sneeze to the rate of your heartbeat.

The CNS contains about 86 billion nerve cells in total, this is more than 12x the amount of people on planet Earth right now! All of them are connected by trillions of nerve fibers – axons and dendrites – that facilitate the transmission of information throughout the entire nervous system.

Glia, also called glial cells or neuroglia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system that do not produce the electrical impulses.  They maintain homeostasis, form myelin , and provide support and protection for neurons.  In the central nervous system, glial cells include oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, and microglia, and in the peripheral nervous system glial cells include Schwann cells and satellite cells. 

Glial cells have four main functions: (1) to surround neurons and hold them in place (the reason they are also called glue cells)        (2) to supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons   (3) to insulate one neuron from another   (4) to destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons. They also play a role in neurotransmission and synaptic connections, and in physiological processes like breathing.

Glial cells or neuroglial cells; also known as the helper cells but non-neuronal cells since it does not do what a neuronal cell does .  Glial cells function is to support the neuron (glue cells remember).   

The term glia is Greek meaning “glue”.   So where these cells might not have the function of electrical stimulation from the brain to the area to create motor movement or functions we might not realize we are doing like breathing without glial cells their neurons would fall apart the glial cells keep them together.

A neuron is a nerve cell that is the basic building block of the nervous system. Neurons are similar to other cells in the human body in a number of ways, but there is one key difference between neurons and other cells. Neurons are specialized to transmit information throughout the body. 

Neurons (also known as neurones, nerve cells and nerve fibers) are specialized cells because they are electrically excitable cells in the nervous system that function to process and transmit information.  Glial cells are specialized cells that help in allowing neuronal cells do the transmission of nerve impulses, which are the nerve cells.  You find these cells in the nervous system.  Muscle movement is initiated by nerve cells (neurons) that are located in the spinal-cord and in the front part of the brain (called the motor cortex). Nerve cells in the motor cortex connect with the nerve cells in the spinal-cord that stimulate muscles to move (called motor nerves). Nerve cells (neurons) Function: releasing of neurosecretions, co-operation between the nervous system and endocrine system in the regulation of the function of internal organs. Location: supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. 

Glio representing the glial cells and blaststoma the representing the tumor/neoplasm consisting of immature undifferentiated cells (commonly in cancerous tissue). The glial cells are in the brain,; this explains the metastasis of this tumor.  Glioblastoma(s) is only in brain tissue and then the spinal cord since the spinal cord is an extension of brain tissue (a fetus first starts growth with a brain that extends into your spinal cord during the trimesters of a pregnancy).  Even though this tumor, glioblastoma,  spreads to only 2 areas the glioblastoma replicates fast which explains why the survival rate on average in 1 to 5 years, over 5 years is rare but possible.   This all depends on how soon it’s diagnosed, what stage is it in 1?2?3? or 4? and if the individual does not ignore symptoms of a glioblastoma or if its not misdiagnosed.  The only way you would even have an idea of a brain tumor in your head is symptoms present and than going to a doctor who immediately prescribes for you a MRI of the brain or lastly, just being checked by your doctor ever year (the key to prevention).  If you have had in your family, especially nuclear family (mom;/dad/siblings) you should get checked yearly or as soon as the oncologist tells you after your first visit with a specialized doctor in cancer being the MD evaluating you.

Glioblastomas often grow in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. They can also be found in the brain stem, cerebellum, other parts of the brain, and the spinal cord.

The signs and symptoms will be based on which lobe of the brain the tumor.  The symptoms of a glioblastoma can be none at first but as the tumor grows getting bigger since it will be applying increased pressure to the brain lobe it is.  The lobe it is in based on the functions of that brain lobe can be affected (example in Temporal Lobe one of the functions is memory and memory could be effected.  These can be the symptoms based on Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (excellent cancer hospital ranking #2 in the nation by

Signs and symptoms of a glioma tend to develop when the tumor pushes on, or even damages, healthy brain tissue. The area around the tumor then swells. Sometimes the tumor gets in the way of the normal flow of fluid around the brain and spinal cord.

“The symptoms often relate to where in the brain the tumor develops.”  This makes sense if your tumor is increasing in the lobe its in it will create more of a headache in the area that the brain lobe is located and possible affect the functions that brain lobe is responsible for depending on the size of the tumor.  “These symptoms may be caused by something other than a glioma, but it’s important to have them checked out by a doctor.”


Headaches are a common symptom in people who have a glioma. About half of people with a glioma experience this symptom. For people with a glioblastoma, the headaches can be severe and are typically worse in the morning.


People with a glioma, especially an astrocytoma, often have seizures as an early sign of the condition.

Nausea and Vomiting

Nausea and vomiting can be caused by the tumor putting increased pressure on the brain.

Decline in Brain Function

This can include confusion, memory loss, or problems speaking or expressing oneself.

Weakness or Problems Moving

People may have physical weakness on one side of the body, problems with balance, or difficulty walking.

Vision Problems

Gliomas can impair vision. This can cause a restricted field of vision, which means not being able to see to the right or the left as well as usual.”

What explains the metastasis (spreading of cancer r/t Glioblastoma (s)) is that the tumor is only in brain tissue which is located obviously in the brain and then the spinal cord but even though it spreads to 2 areas the glioblastoma replicates fast which explains why the survival rate on average in 1 to 5 years, over 5 years is rare but possible.  With technology and constant trials for Rx of glioblastoma and other tumors today it keeps getting better and better each day for the survival rate.

Stay tune tomorrow for how its diagnosed and the treatment!




“An estimated 700,000 Americans are living with a primary brain tumor.  An estimated 84,170 people will receive a primary brain tumor diagnosis in 2021  The median age at diagnosis for a primary brain tumor is 60 years.  The average survival rate for all primary brain tumor patients is 75.2%.  Survival rates vary by age and tumor type and generally decrease with age”

National Brain Tumors (

What the brain lobes are in our Cerebrum & Knowing each lobe’s function to understand tumors symptoms in those areas!

brain Lobe Regions

The brain has three main parts:

1- Cerebrum, 2 – Cerbellum (below the occipal and temporal lobe is the Cerebrum), and 3 – Brain Stem (It’s under 1 & 2.)


The cerebrum, the large, outer part of the brain, controls reading, thinking, learning, speech, emotions and planned muscle movements like walking. It also controls vision, hearing and other senses. The cerebrum is divided two cerebral hemispheres (halves): left and right. The right half controls the left side of the body. The left half controls the right side of the body.

Each hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital.  A lobe simply means a part of an organ (earlobe for example).  Each lobe controls specific functions. For example, the frontal lobe controls personality, decision-making and reasoning, while the temporal lobe controls, memory, speech, and sense of smell.

The frontal lobe is the largest lobe of the brain.  The frontal lobe are the last parts of the brain develop as a person ages and the part of the human brain that is most different from other mammals and primates.  The last part to mature is the prefrontal lobe. This happens during adolescence. Many things affect brain development including genetics, individual and environmental factors.  We learn to become adults in our frontal lobes.   You choose between good and bad actions; override and suppress socially unacceptable responses; and determine similarities and differences between objects or situations. The frontal lobe is considered to be the moral center of the brain because it is responsible for advanced decision making processes. It also plays an important role in retaining emotional memories derived from the limbic system, and modifying those emotions to fit socially accepted norms.  The frontal lobes are considered our emotional control center and home to our personality. There is no other part of the brain where lesions can cause such a wide variety of symptoms (Kolb & Wishaw, 1990). The frontal lobes are involved in motor function, problem solving, spontaneity, memory, language, initiation, judgment, impulse control, and social and sexual behavior. Frontal lobe damage effects one or more of these areas depending on the severity of the damage.  The frontal lobes are extremely vulnerable to injury due to their location at the front of the cranium, proximity to the sphenoid wing and their large size. MRI studies have shown that the frontal area is the most common region of injury following mild to moderate traumatic brain injury.

The parietal lobes can be divided into two functional regions. One involves sensation and perception and the other is concerned with integrating sensory input, primarily with the visual system. The first function integrates sensory information to form a single perception (cognition).  The parietal lobes have an important role in integrating our senses. In most people the left side parietal lobe is thought of as dominant because of the way it structures information to allow us to read & write, make calculations, perceive objects normally and produce language. Damage to the dominant parietal lobe can lead to Gerstmann’s syndrome (e.g. can’t tell left from right, can’t point to named fingers), apraxia and sensory impairment (e.g. touch, pain). Damage to the non-dominant lobe, usually the right side of the brain, will result in different problems. This non-dominant lobe receives information from the occipital lobe and helps provide us with a ‘picture’ of the world around us. Damage may result in an inability to recognize faces, surroundings or objects (visual agnosia). So, someone may recognize your voice, but not your appearance (you sound like my daughter, but you’re not her). Damage to the parietal lobe depends on severity and location of the area. Because this lobe also has a role in helping us locate objects in our personal space, any damage can lead to problems in skilled movements (constructional apraxia) leading to difficulties in drawing or picking objects up.

The temporal lobes they are in the section of the brain located on the sides of the head behind the temples and cheekbones.   It’s responsible for processing auditory information from the ears (hearing).   The temporal lobes play an important role in organizing sensory input, auditory perception, language and speech production, as well as short term memory association and formation. The Temporal Lobe mainly revolves around hearing and selective listening. It receives sensory information such as sounds and speech from the ears. It is also the key to being able to comprehend, or understand meaningful speech. In fact, we would not be able to understand someone talking to us, if it wasn’t for the temporal lobe. This lobe is special because it makes sense of the all the different sounds and pitches (different types of sound) being transmitted from the sensory receptors of the ears. Temporal Lobes Kolb & Wishaw (1990) have identified eight principle symptoms of temporal lobe damage: 1) disturbance of auditory sensation and perception, 2) disturbance of selective attention of auditory and visual input, 3) disorders of visual perception, 4) impaired organization and categorization of verbal material, 5) disturbance of language comprehension, 6) impaired long-term memory, 7) altered personality and affective behavior, 8) altered sexual behavior. These can be due to tumors on the right or left side of the temporal lobe, due to seizures in the temporal lobe and if seizures regularly happen to this individual in the temporal region, which causes lack of oxygen to that area of that area of the brain it will effect one or more of the functions of that lobe which we discussed earlier, listed above.

-The last region or lobe that makes up the cerebrum is the occipal lobe. The occipital lobe is important to being able to correctly understand what our eyes are seeing. These lobes have to be very fast to process the rapid information that our eyes are sending. This is similar to how the temporal lobe makes sense of auditory information, the occipital lobe makes sense of visual information so that we are able to understand it. If our occipital lobe was impaired or injured we would not be able to correctly process visual signals, thus visual confusion would result.




“6 out of 10 adults in the U.S. have a chronic disease and 4 out of 10 have two or more chronic diseases in the U.S.”

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) /

The crisis is clear–chronic diseases are crushing healthcare in America.

Chronic diseases are crushing healthcare.

Our healthcare system is good at treating short-term problems, such as broken bones and infections. Medical advances are helping people live longer. But obesity is reaching epidemic proportions. The population is aging. We need to do a much better job managing chronic diseases.

Chronic conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, lung disease, and Alzheimer’s disease take a heavy toll on health. Chronic conditions also cost vast amounts of money. The trends are going in the wrong direction:

  • Obesity increases the risk of developing conditions, such as diabetes and heart disease. The rate of obesity in adults has doubled in the last 20 years. It has almost tripled in kids ages 2-11. It has more than tripled in children ages 12-19.

  • Without big changes, 1 in 3 babies born today will develop diabetes in their lifetime.

  • Average healthcare costs for someone who has one or more chronic conditions is 5 times greater than for someone without any chronic conditions.

  • Chronic diseases account for $3 of every $4 spent on healthcare. That’s nearly $7,900 for every American with a chronic disease.

  • These chronic diseases drive healthcare costs at an alarming annual rate:

  • Heart Disease and Stroke: $432 billion/year.

  • Diabetes: $174 billion/year.

  • Lung Disease: $154 billion/year.

  • Alzheimer’s Disease: $148 billion/year.The human cost of chronic diseases cannot be ignored:

  • The Human Cost

    • Chronic diseases cause 7 out of every 10 deaths.

    • Chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and heart disease are the leading causes of disability and death in the US.

    • About 25% of people with chronic diseases have some type of activity limitation. This includes difficulty or needing help with personal tasks such as dressing or bathing. It may also mean being restricted from work or attending school.

    • Today, Americans suffering from chronic diseases face rising healthcare costs. They also receive lower quality care and have fewer options.

    • Health insurance co-pays and out-of-pocket expenses continue to rise. In many cases, choices and care are limited.

    • The disabling and long-term symptoms that often come with chronic diseases add to extended pain and suffering. This decreases the overall quality of life.The financial and human costs of chronic diseases can no longer be ignored.

    • There is a way we can prevent this and it would be keeping your weight ideal for your height within the therapeutic body mass index range (calculate it for free online).  If you need to lose weight you’ve come to the right blog.  Do it through diet, exercise balanced with rest and practicing routine healthy habits that prone you to having a healthy body overall which prevents disease.  So many diseases are due to these factors not practiced daily =  good diet with exercise, healthy habits and a therapeutic weight for your height.  If we had most of American citizens living this way certain diseases would be decreased terribly helping our country out with this economy of ours with the health care system.  If you need assistance in reaching these healthy practices   Do you want a better fit body or even an overall healthier family including grandchildren to even our country than take the action NOW.  For your goal in playing a part in living healthier and spreading the good news would benefit you and all around us.  Also, for the next decade & generation to be healthier will help Americans holistically in their lives all around (including our health care showing a spread of disease in lower percentage due to healthier dieting and activity choices by our people, who are so important in helping to decide where the health of the present and future of the US citizens lies.  Should it take our government to make a move (finally after so many years)?   We must face the epidemic of chronic diseases. If we don’t, the human costs will continue to soar. We might even face a lack of available or affordable care when it is needed most.


    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chronic Disease Overview: Costs of Chronic Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. Available at Accessed July 24, 2007.
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Overweight and Obesity. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. Available at Accessed July 24, 2007.
    • American Diabetes Association. The Dangerous Toll of Diabetes. American Diabetes Association Web site. Available at Accessed May 18, 2007.
    • Partnership for Solutions. Chronic Conditions: Making the Case for Ongoing Care, September 2004 Update. Partnership for Solutions Web site. Available at chronicbook2004.pdf. Accessed July 24, 2007.
    • Mensah G, Brown D. An overview of cardiovascular disease burden in the United States. Health Aff 2007; 26:38-48.
    • American Diabetes Association. Direct and Indirect Costs of Diabetes in the United States. American Diabetes Association Web site. Available at cost-of-diabetes-in-HYPERLINK “”us.jsp. Accessed September 20, 2007.
    • Alzheimer’s Association. Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures 2007. Alzheimer’s Association Web site. Available at


“There are an estimated 1 million people in the U.S. living with Parkinson’s disease and more than 10 million people worldwide. Most people who develop the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease do so sometime after the age of 50.”

American Parkinson Disease Association (

What is Parkinson Disease (PD)?

Parkinson's Disease1  Parkinson's Disease 2

Parkinson Disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive movement disorder, meaning that symptoms continue and worsen over time. Nearly one million people in the US are living with Parkinson’s disease. The cause is unknown, and although there is presently no cure, there are treatment options such as medication and surgery to manage its symptoms.

Parkinson’s involves the malfunction and death of vital nerve cells in the brain, called neurons. Parkinson’s primarily affects neurons in an area of the brain called the substantia nigra. Some of these dying neurons produce dopamine, a chemical that sends messages to the part of the brain that controls movement and coordination. As PD progresses, the amount of dopamine produced in the brain decreases, leaving a person unable to control movement normally.

There are three types of Parkinson’s disease and they are grouped by age of onset:


1-Adult-Onset Parkinson’s Disease – This is the most common type of Parkinson’s disease. The average age of onset is approximately 60 years old. The incidence of adult onset PD rises noticeably as people advance in age into their 70’s and 80’s.


2-Young-Onset Parkinson’s Disease – The age of onset is between 21-40 years old. Though the incidence of Young-Onset Parkinson’s Disease is very high in Japan (approximately 40% of cases diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease), it is still relatively uncommon in the U.S., with estimates ranging from 5-10% of cases diagnosed.


3-Juvenile Parkinson’s Disease – The age of onset is before the age of 21. The incidence of Juvenile Parkinson’s Disease is very rare.


Parkinson’s disease can significantly impair quality of life not only for the patients but for their families as well, and especially for the primary caregivers. It is therefore important for caregivers and family members to educate themselves and become familiar with the course of Parkinson’s disease and the progression of symptoms so that they can be actively involved in communication with health care providers and in understanding all decisions regarding treatment of the patient.


According to the American Parkinson’s Disease Association, there are approximately 1.5 million people in the U.S. who suffer from Parkinson’s disease – approximately 1-2% of people over the age of 60 and 3-5% of the population over age 85. The incidence of PD ranges from 8.6-19 per 100,000 people. Approximately 50,000 new cases are diagnosed in the U.S. annually. That number is expected to rise as the general population in the U.S. ages. Onset of Parkinson’s disease before the age of 40 is rare. All races and ethnic groups are affected.

Knowledge is Critical when Dealing with a Life-Altering Condition such as Parkinson’s Disease and being able to make the changes to last longer and at your optimal level of functioning! First step is accept you have it!

If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, it’s critical to learn everything you possibly can about this condition so that you can make informed decisions about your treatment. That’s why we created the Medifocus Guidebook on Parkinson’s Disease, a comprehensive 170 page patient Guidebook that contains vital information about Parkinson’s disease that you won’t find anywhere in a single source.

The Medifocus Guidebook on Parkinson’s Disease starts out with a detailed overview of the condition and quickly imparts fundamentally important information about Parkinson’s disease, including:

The theories regarding the underlying causes of Parkinson’s disease.


What Are the Possible Risk factors that can be a cause of Parkinson’s Disease?


The Parkinson’s Disease Foundation notes that even after decades of intense study, the causes of Parkinson’s disease are not really understood. However, many experts believe that the disease is caused by several genetic and environmental factors, which can vary in each person.

1-Genetic Factors

In some patients, genetic factors could be the primary cause; but in others, there could be something in the environment that led to the disease. Scientists have noted that aging is a key risk factor. There is a 2-4% risk for developing the disease for people over 60. That is compared to 1-2% risk in the general population.

2-Environmental Factors

Some scientists believe that PD can result from overexposure to environmental toxins, or injury. Research by epidemiologists has identified several factors that may be linked to PD. Some of these include living in rural areas, drinking well water, pesticides and manganese.

Some studies have indicated that long term exposure to some chemicals could cause a higher risk of PD. These include the insecticides permethrin and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), the herbicides paraquat and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and the fungicide maneb. In 2009, the US Veterans Affairs Department stated that PD could be caused by exposure to Agent Orange.

We should remember that simple exposure to a single toxin in the environment is probably not enough to cause PD. Most people who are exposed to such toxins do not develop PD.


“Insulin Resistance leads to many deadly ailments such as Heart Attack, Alzheimer’s Dementia, Cancer, Kidney Disease, Stroke, Gout, Obesity, and Diabetes to name the most serious illnesses. Obesity and Diabetes alone will continue progressing and cause lower back pain, joint pain, amputation, blindness, and slow healing wounds.”

Dr. Greenwald of Specialty Health in Reno NV 



women problems in US      th3YVKK6L3Health C

Americans include two health-related issues among the 10 most important problems facing the U.S., according to a recent Gallup survey. Healthcare in general ranked fourth on the list, with Ebola coming in at no. 8. But is Ebola really among the biggest health problems for Americans? Not when we look at the chances of actually being infected.  Now Legionnaires disease but look at the main health issues we face that need to get under control and with some worse than an epidemic but a common health problem daily in the MD office or in the hospital.

So, what are the actual biggest health problems that Americans face? One way to answer this question is to look at what drugs are prescribed the most. Here are the seven top health problems based on the most-prescribed drugs in the U.S., according to Medscape’s analysis of data provided by IMS Health.

1. Hypothyroidism

AbbVie’s (ABBV) Synthroid ranks at the top of the list of most-prescribed drugs. Synthroid is used to treat hypothyroidism, a condition caused by an underactive thyroid gland.

The American Thyroid Association estimates that 2%-3% of Americans have pronounced hypothyroidism, while 10%-15% have a mild version of the disease. Hypothyroidism occurs more frequently in women, especially women over age 60. Around half of Americans with the condition don’t realize that they have hypothyroidism.

2. High cholesterol and high triglycerides

Coming in at a close second on the list is AstraZeneca’s (AZN ) Crestor. The drug is used to help control high cholesterol and high triglyceride levels.

According to the American Heart Association, nearly 99 million Americans age 20 and over have high cholesterol. Elevated cholesterol levels are one of the major risk factors for heart attacks and strokes. The problem is that you won’t know if you have high cholesterol unless you get tested — and around one in three Americans haven’t had their cholesterol levels checked in the last five years.

3. Heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease

AstraZeneca also claims the third most prescribed drug in the nation — Nexium. The “purple pill” helps treat hearburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, also commonly referred to as acid reflux.

Around 20% of Americans have GERD, according to the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. A lot of people take over-the-counter medications, but that’s not enough for many others. Medscape reported that over 18.6 million prescriptions of Nexium were filled between July 2013 and June 2014.

4. Breathing disorders

The next two highly prescribed drugs treat breathing disorders. GlaxoSmithKline’s (GSK ) Ventolin HFA is used by asthma patients, while the company’s Advair Diskus treats asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD.

More than 25 million Americans have asthma. Around 7 million of these patients are children. Meanwhile, COPD, which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, ranks as the third-leading cause of death in the U.S.

5. High blood pressure

Novartis (NVS) claims the next top-prescribed drug with Diovan. The drug treats high blood pressure by relaxing and widening blood vessels, thereby allowing blood to flow more readily.

Around one-third of American adults have high blood pressure. Many don’t know that they are affected, because the condition doesn’t usually manifest symptoms for a long time. However, high blood pressure can eventually lead to other serious health issues, including heart and kidney problems.

6. Diabetes

Several highly prescribed drugs combat diabetes, with Sanofi’s (SNY) Lantus Solostar taking the top spot for the condition. Lantus Solostar is a long-acting basal insulin that is used for type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

According to the National Diabetes Statistics Report released in June 2014, 29.1 million Americans had diabetes in 2012. That’s a big jump from just two years earlier, when 25.8 million Americans had the disease. Diabetes ranks as the seventh leading cause of death in the U.S.

7. Depression and anxiety

Eli Lilly’s Cymbalta is the leading treatment for depression and generalized anxiety disorder.

The Anxiety and Depression Association of America estimates that 14.8 million Americans ages 18 and older suffer from a major depressive disorder each year. Around 3.3 million have persistent depressive disorder, a form of depression that lasts for two or more years. Generalized anxiety disorder affects around 6.8 million adults in the U.S.

If you want to panic of a real large amount of what we have regarding disease or illnesses in our country look at problems one through seven.