Archive | August 2019

QUOTE FOR THE WEEKEND:

“For the last four years or so,  Andrew Luck – Former Quaterback for the Colts-29 yrs old stated this month he’s been in this cycle of injury, pain, rehab, injury, pain, rehab — and it’s been unceasing, unrelenting, both in-season and offseason,” he said after a preseason game over the weekend. “I felt stuck in it, and the only way I see out is to no longer play football. It’s taken my joy of this game away.”

ESPN

Continual Concussions can cause permanent brain damage!

concussion 4concussion 1

concussion 2concussion 3a

A concussion is a traumatic brain injury that alters the way your brain functions. Effects are usually temporary but can include headaches and problems with concentration, memory, balance and coordination.  Continue this injury over and over again can lead to high potential of brain damage.

Although concussions usually are caused by a blow to the head, they can also occur when the head and upper body are violently shaken. These injuries can cause a loss of consciousness, but most concussions do not. Because of this, some people have concussions and don’t realize it.

Concussions are common, particularly if you play a contact sport, such as football. But every concussion injures your brain to some extent. This injury needs time and rest to heal properly. Most concussive traumatic brain injuries are mild, and people usually recover fully.

******Remember the key to a brain concussion fully recovering is not to have impact to the head happening over and over again. Based on the same concept if you get hit in the same spot over and over again anywhere in the body bruising to actual injury will happen whether it be muscle or bone. Well get hit in the head over and over again like in sports especially boxing but now the big conversation with football even with a helmet on you will cause a permanent damage to the brain.  A perfect example of this is a boxer that gets hit over an over again to the head in a boxing ring. The head is just another area of the body and no different than other areas of our body.******

What actually happens is this a concussion is most often caused by a sudden direct blow or bump to the head.

The brain is made of soft tissue. It’s cushioned by spinal fluid and encased in the protective shell of the skull. When you sustain a concussion, the impact can jolt your brain. Sometimes, it literally causes it to move around in your head. Traumatic brain injuries can cause bruising, damage to the blood vessels, and injury to the nerves.

The result? Your brain doesn’t function normally. If you’ve suffered a concussion, vision may be disturbed, you may lose equilibrium, or you may fall unconscious. In short, the brain is confused. That’s why Bugs Bunny often saw stars after getting whacked in the head in his cartoon by some other character.

The new uptake with football is being concerned with players getting concussions from getting hit by their opponent players whether it be defense or offense while playing the game. Concussions have become big business in the football world. With 1,700 players in the NFL, 66,000 in the college game, 1.1 million in high school and 250,000 more in Pop Warner, athletes and families across the country are eager to find ways to cut the risks of brain injury, whose terrifying consequences regularly tear across the sports pages. And a wave of companies offering diagnostic tools and concussion treatments are just as eager to sell them peace of mind.

That’s actually a slogan for one company. ImPACT, the maker of the world’s most popular concussion evaluation system, offers a 20-minute computerized test that players can take via software or online to measure verbal and visual memory, processing speed, reaction time and impulse control. The idea behind ImPACT (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing) and similar batteries is that doctors or athletic trainers can give a baseline test to a healthy athlete, conduct follow-up tests after an injury and then compare the results to help figure out when it’s OK to return the athlete to play. Selling itself as “Valid. Reliable. Safe,” ImPACT dominates the testing market and has spread throughout the sports world: Most NFL clubs use the test, as do all MLB, MLS and NHL clubs, the national associations for boxing, hockey and soccer in the U.S., and nine auto racing circuits.

A total of 87 out of 91 former NFL players have tested positive for the brain disease at the center of the debate over concussions in football, according to new figures from the nation’s largest brain bank focused on the study of traumatic head injury.

Researchers with the Department of Veterans Affairs and Boston University have now identified the degenerative disease known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE, in 96 percent of NFL players that they’ve examined and in 79 percent of all football players. The disease is widely believed to stem from repetitive trauma to the head, and can lead to conditions such as memory loss, depression and dementia.

In total, the lab has found CTE in the brain tissue in 131 out of 165 individuals who, before their deaths, played football either professionally, semi-professionally, in college or in high school.

Forty percent of those who tested positive were the offensive and defensive linemen who come into contact with one another on every play of a game, according to numbers shared by the brain bank with FRONTLINE. That finding supports past research suggesting that it’s the repeat, more minor head trauma that occurs regularly in football that may pose the greatest risk to players, as opposed to just the sometimes violent collisions that cause concussions.

But the figures come with several important caveats, as testing for the disease can be an imperfect process. Brain scans have been used to identify signs of CTE in living players, but the disease can only be definitively identified posthumously. As such, many of the players who have donated their brains for testing suspected that they had the disease while still alive, leaving researchers with a skewed population to work with.

Even with those caveats, the latest numbers are “remarkably consistent” with past research from the center suggesting a link between football and long-term brain disease, said Dr. Ann McKee, the facility’s director and chief of neuropathology at the VA Boston Healthcare System.

“People think that we’re blowing this out of proportion, that this is a very rare disease and that we’re sensationalizing it,” said McKee, who runs the lab as part of a collaboration between the VA and BU. “My response is that where I sit, this is a very real disease. We have had no problem identifying it in hundreds of players.”

In a statement, a spokesman for the NFL said, “We are dedicated to making football safer and continue to take steps to protect players, including rule changes, advanced sideline technology, and expanded medical resources. We continue to make significant investments in independent research through our gifts to Boston University, the [National Institutes of Health] and other efforts to accelerate the science and understanding of these issues.”

The latest update from the brain bank, which in 2010 received a $1 million research grant from the NFL, comes at a time when the league is able to boast measurable progress in reducing head injuries. In its 2015 Health & Safety Report, the NFL said that concussions in regular season games fell 35 percent over the past two seasons, from 173 in 2012 to 112 last season. A separate analysis by FRONTLINE that factors in concussions reported by teams during the preseason and the playoffs shows a smaller decrease of 28 percent.

QUOTE FOR THURSDAY:

“In summary, there is a difference between a heart attack and a cardiac arrest. A heart attack occurs when the blood supply to part of the heart stops and thus causes a section of the heart muscle to begin to die; whereas a cardiac arrest occurs when the heart stops beating as a whole.”

American Heart Association

Certain cardiac rhythms can lead to a cardiac arrest & how!

HeartBlocks1

The rhythms above are heart blocks (HB) that occur in the bottom of the upper chambers which can occur in some people. There is 1st degree HB where you can live a completely normal life with but 2nd and 3rd degree HB needs treatment (usually a pacemaker) by cardiologist surgeon.  After treatment with 2nd and 3rd degree HB you can live a completely normal life with follow up with your cardiologist and yearly pacemaker checks.

In this rhythm below the Ventricular Tachycardia is with a point on the top but than flips upside down (commonly called Torsedes Pointes).  This is commonly due to Magnesium Level low and IV Magnesium in the hospital is given 1 to 2 gm.

ventrhy4

This  rhythm above with a pulse=also a rhythm pulsating in different areas of the heart in the ventricles only causing the rhythm not to look identical throughout the tele strip above = Polymorphic V- Tac- meaning the stimulus in the ventricles to make the heart beat is coming from different areas of the ventricles for each beat.  Each jagged tooth is a beat that makes up the whole strip shown above for Ventricular Tachycardia.

Than when the atriums aren’t working as the natural pacemaker that took over for the sinus node but now they don’t work so now the ventricles take over and the rhythms of all ventricle rhythms are with NO p waves since the atriums are not working so no p wave is involved but we have QRS waves but their wide in measurement because the rhythm starts in the ventricles. The rhythms are PVC (Premature Ventricular Contractions), Idioventricular Rhythm, Ventricular tachycardia (Monomorphic and Polymorphic-rhythm getting more irregular. When regular and monomorphic=looking identical with every ventricular beat or contraction as opposed to polymorphic=not looking identical each contraction but each one is a ventricular contraction), Torsades De Pointes Ventricular Tachycardia (the rhythm starts upright but turns upside down but each contraction without a p wave and a wide contraction meaning a ventricular contraction), and Ventricular Fibrillation, to asystole.

Here’s what they look like:

 Accelerated Idioventricular Rhythm

Accelerated idioventricular rhythm occurs when three or more ventricular escape beats appear in a sequence. Heart rate will be 50-100 bpm. The QRS complex will be wide (0.12 sec. or more).

A regular QRS measures less than 0.12 which is with all atriums rhythms.

 Asystole

Asystole is the state of no cardiac electrical activity and no cardiac output. Immediate action is required.

Idioventricular Rhythm

Idioventricular rhythm is a slow rhythm of under 50 bpm. It indicates that then ventricules are producing escape beats.

Premature Ventricular Complex (above 1st strip)

Premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) occur when a ventricular site generates an impulse. This happens before the next regular sinus beat. Look for a wide QRS complex, equal or greater than 0.12 sec. The QRS complex shape can be bizarre. The P wave will be absent.

Premature Ventricular Complex – Bigeminy a QRS after every 2 regular beats

Premature Ventricular Complex – Trigeminy a QRS after every 3 regular beats

Premature Ventricular Complex – Quadrigeminy a QRS after every 4 regular beats

 Ventricular Fibrillation (in above strip-3rd one)

Ventricular fibrillation originates in the ventricules and it chaotic. No normal EKG waves are present. No heart rate can be observed. Ventricular fibrillation is an emergency condition requiring immediate action.

Ventricular Tachycardia  (in above strip-2nd one)

A sequence of three PVCs in a row is ventricular tachycardia. The rate will be 120-200 bpm. Ventricular Tachycardia has two variations, monomorphic and polymorphic. These variations are discussed separately.

Ventricular Tachycardia Monomorphic

Monomorphic ventricular tachycardia occurs when the electrical impulse originates in one of the ventricules. The QRS complex is wide. Rate is above 100 bpm.  Each V tac beat looks identical like in the strip above.

Ventricular Tachycardia Polymorphic

Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia has QRS complexes that very in shape and size. If a polymorphic ventricular tachycardia has a long QT Interval, it could be Torsade de Pointes.  The strip shows the pulses are not identical=polymorphic since the pulse beats are coming from all different areas of the ventricles.

Torsade de Pointes  (the rhythm strip at the top under Heart Blocks)

Torsade de Pointes is a special form of ventricular tachycardia. The QRS complexes vary in shape and amplitude and appear to wind around the baseline.  This is an example or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.

Ventricular ending line needs to be treated stat to be switched back to atrial rhythm since the heart is missing ½ of the conduction it’s to normally receive from the atriums and if not reversed the heart will go into failure to heart attack or to asystole flat line and go into a cardiac arrest.

With PVCs=Premature Ventricle Contractions asymptomatic we just closely monitor the pt and telemetry the pt is on. Now a pt with PVCs and symtomatic usually meds with 0xygen (sometimes 02 alone resolves it but other times with meds) but if it gets worse into V Tachycardia the treatment is below.

Idioventricular Rhythm (IVR)is usually with a slow brady pulse and needs meds.   Accelerated IVR (AIVR) is usually hemodynamically tolerated and self-limited; thus, it rarely requires treatment.

Occasionally, patients may not tolerate AIVR due to (1) loss of atrial-ventricular synchrony, (2) relative rapid ventricular rate, or (3) ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation degenerated from AIVR (extremely rare). Under these situations, atropine can be used to increase the underlying sinus rate to inhibit AIVR.

Other treatments for AIVR, which include isoproterenol, verapamil, antiarrhythmic drugs such as lidocaine and amiodarone, and atrial overdriving pacing are only occasionally used today.

Patients with AIVR should be treated mainly for its underlying causes, such as digoxin toxicity, myocardial ischemia, and structure heart diseases. Beta-blockers are often used in patients with myocardial ischemia-reperfusion and cardiomyopathy

With Ventricular rhythms with fast pulse over 100 with symptomatic signs for the patient we may use as simple as valsalva pressure on the neck that medical staff only do but when pt is in asymptomatic (no symptoms) Ventricular Tachycardia (V-Tac) to even medications but when symptomatic if in V-Tac start cardioversion with a pulse if no pulse called pulseless V-Tac we use a defibrillator since there is no pulse there is no QRS to pace with in having the shock hit at the R wave, why? NO PULSE.

Treatment for Torsade de Pointes is Magnesium deficiency and Mag. Supplement given IV 2gms. Usually effective but if necessary the same as above as directed for it with a pulse or the other V Tac. (without a pulse)-See above.

Ventricular Fibrillation is when the ventricles are just quivering and the atriums in any ventricular rhythm doing nothing. The pt needs CPR and ASAP a defibrillator in hopes the shock will knock the rhythm back to a normal sinus or some form of a real rhythm.

Asystole which is a straight line, no pulse and this is CPR with epinephrine or Vasopressin 40 for only the replacement of the 1st or 2nd dose of Epinephrine 1mg. This is given 3-5 minutes (epinephrine). No defibrillation since no pulse. A rhythm may come back and if not the MD will call when CPR stops. Asystole is hard to resolve in most cases highier probability of resolution if in a hospital where close monitoring is done and its detected quicker.

The PURPOSE in treating any rhythm abnormal to the human heart is to reach the goal of a optimal or healthiest rhythm (a normal sinus rhythm , the best rhythm the heart can be in) and if not reaching an atrial rhythm.  We the medical field aim to reach a heart rhythm the patient can live with and hopefully reaching the best NSR-Normal Sinus Rhythm.  Normal sinus rhythm that is a rhythm starting from the upper right chamber extending to the left one and continues down on both sides to the bottom of the ventricles.  This rhythm is giving the most effective oxygen perfusion to the heart to allow it to do its function (pumping good oxygenated blood flow out of the left ventricle at the same time pumping highly carbon dioxide blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs to get more oxygen).   Doing this it allows the human body to get good amounts of oxygen to all our tissues=good overall oxygen perfusion to all tissues.  At the same time what happens is red blood cells from all tissues with mostly used up oxygen from the cell and more carbon dioxide in the cell are also being pumped by the heart to return to the right side  to the lungs to go through this whole process again in getting more oxygen in the RBCs which keeps us alive. A human without oxygen or low oxygen to their tissues or any tissue is going to reach cellular starvation which in turn causes starvation to the tissues (in general) or to a tissue (Ex. Diabetic the foot to lack of 02 to cyanotic purple tissue to necrotic black tissue=dead to amputated since the tissue is dead.).

Cardiac Arrest or Heart Attack are more likely to occur in  a irregular rhythm especially making the heart work to hard being RVR afib in the atriums that can lead easily to ventricular tachycardia to ventricular fibrillation and not treated immediately.

Cardiac Arrest is an electrical problem with the conduction of the heart whereas a Heart Attack is caused by a blockage of blood (Ex. coronary artery) to the heart that can lead to a bad rhythm due to lack of 0xygen that leads to worse rhythms as the heart gets more stressed out.

QUOTE FOR WEDNESDAY:

“ParryRomberg syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by slowly progressive deterioration (atrophy) of the skin and soft tissues of half of the face (hemifacial atrophy), usually the left side. It is more common in females than in males.”

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

QUOTE FOR MONDAY:

There are 5 main hepatitis viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D and E. These 5 types are of greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death they cause and the potential for outbreaks and epidemic spread. Hepatitis A and E are typically caused by ingestion of contaminated food or water. Hepatitis B, C and D usually occur as a result of parenteral contact with infected body fluids. Common modes of transmission for these viruses include receipt of contaminated blood or blood products, invasive medical procedures using contaminated equipment and for hepatitis B transmiss-ion from mother to baby at birth, from family member to child, and also by sexual contact.

WHO World Health Organization

QUOTE FOR THE WEEKEND:

Hepatitis” means inflammation of the liver. … Hepatitis A and B can be prevented by vaccination, but not hepatitis C. There are now many good medications available to treat chronic hepatitis B and C. The symptoms of acute hepatitis include yellowing of the skin and eyes, nausea, fever and fatigue.

MAYO CLINIC

QUOTE FOR FRIDAY:

“Hemophilia is one of the more common inherited types of bleeding disorders. Currently, about 20,000 individuals in the United States have hemophilia. Although hemophilia most commonly occurs in men, it can also occur in women.”

National Hemophilia Foundation

 

 

 

Hemophilia

What is this condition?

Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder characterized by low levels of clotting factor proteins. Correct diagnosis of Hemophilia is essential to providing effective treatment. Blood Center of Wisconsin offers one of the largest diagnostic menus to accurately and confidently diagnose Hemophilia.

The X and Y chromosomes are called sex chromosomes. The gene for hemophilia is carried on the X chromosome. Hemophilia is inherited in an X-linked recessive manner.  Females inherit two X chromosomes, one from their mother and one from their father (XX). Males inherit an X chromosome from their mother and a Y chromosome from their father (XY). That means if a son inherits an X chromosome carrying hemophilia from his mother, he will have hemophilia. It also means that fathers cannot pass hemophilia on to their sons.

But because daughters have two X chromosomes, even if they inherit the hemophilia gene from their mother, most likely they will inherit a healthy X chromosome from their father and not have hemophilia. A daughter who inherits an X chromosome that contains the gene for hemophilia is called a carrier. She can pass the gene on to her children. Hemophilia can occur in daughters, but is rare.

For a female carrier, there are four possible outcomes for each pregnancy:

  1. A girl who is not a carrier
  2. A girl who is a carrier
  3. A boy without hemophilia
  4. A boy with hemophilia

Hemophilia is an X-linked inherited bleeding disorder caused by mutation of the F8 gene that encodes for coagulation factor VIII or the F9 gene that encodes for coagulation factor IX. The degree of plasma factor deficiency correlates with both the clinical severity of disease and genetic findings. Severe hemophilia is characterized by plasma factor VIII or factor IX levels of under 1 IU/dl. Moderate and mild hemophilia are characterized by factor VIII or factor IX levels of 1-5 IU/dL or 6 – 40 IU/dL, respectively. Genetic analysis is useful for identification of the underlying genetic defect in males with severe, moderate or mild hemophilia and for determination of carrier status in the female individuals within their families. Additionally, data is emerging regarding the correlation between a patients mutation status and the risk of that patient developing an inhibitor.

People with hemophilia A often, bleed longer than other people. Bleeds can occur internally, into joints and muscles, or externally, from minor cuts, dental procedures or trauma. How frequently a person bleeds and the severity of those bleeds depends on how much FVIII is in the plasma, the straw-colored fluid portion of blood.

Normal plasma levels of FVIII range from 50% to 150%. Levels below 50%, or half of what is needed to form a clot, determine a person’s symptoms.

Mild hemophilia A-  6% up to 49% of FVIII in the blood. People with mild hemophilia Agenerally experience bleeding only after serious injury, trauma or surgery. In many cases, mild hemophilia is not diagnosed until an injury, surgery or tooth extraction results in prolonged bleeding. The first episode may not occur until adulthood. Women with mild hemophilia often experience menorrhagia, heavy menstrual periods, and can hemorrhage after childbirth.

Moderate hemophilia A. 1% up to 5% of FVIII in the blood. People with moderate hemophilia A  tend to have bleeding episodes after injuries. Bleeds that occur without obvious cause are called spontaneous bleeding episodes.

Severe hemophilia A.  <1% of FVIII in the blood. People with severe hemophilia A experience bleeding following an injury and may have frequent spontaneous bleeding episodes, often into their joints and musclesHemophilia A and B are diagnosed by measuring factor clotting activity. Individuals who have hemophilia A have low factor VIII clotting activity. Individuals who have hemophilia B have low factor IX clotting activity.Genetic testing is usually used to identify women who are carriers of a FVIII or FIX gene mutation, and to diagnose hemophilia in a fetus during a pregnancy (prenatal diagnosis). It is sometimes used to diagnose individuals who have mild symptoms of hemophilia A or B.

For Diagnosing the condition:

Genetic testing is also available for the factor VIII gene and the factor IX gene. Genetic testing of the FVIII gene finds a disease-causing mutation in up to 98 percent of individuals who have hemophilia A. Genetic testing of the FIX gene finds disease-causing mutations in more than 99 percent of individuals who have hemophilia B.

For Treating the condition:

There is currently no cure for hemophilia. Treatment depends on the severity of hemophilia.People who have moderate to severe hemophilia A or B may need to have an infusion of clotting factor taken from donated human blood or from genetically engineered products called recombinant clotting factors to stop the bleeding. If the potential for bleeding is serious, a doctor may give infusions of clotting factor to avoid bleeding (preventive infusions) before the bleeding begins. Repeated infusions may be necessary if the internal bleeding is serious. When a person who has hemophilia has a small cut or scrape, using pressure and a bandage will take care of the wound. An ice pack can be used when there are small areas of bleeding under the skin.

When bleeding has damaged joints, physical therapy is used to help them function better. Physical therapy helps to keep the joints moving and prevents the joints from becoming frozen or badly deformed. Sometimes the bleeding into joints damages them or destroys them. In this situation, the individual may be given an artificial joint.

Treatment may involve slow injection of a medicine called desmopressin (DDAVP) by the doctor into one of the veins. DDAVP helps to release more clotting factor to stop the bleeding. Sometimes, DDAVP is given as a medication that can be breathed in through the nose (nasal spray).

Researchers have been working to develop a gene replacement treatment (gene therapy) for Hemophilia A. Research of gene therapy for hemophilia A is now taking place. The results are encouraging. Researchers continue to evaluate the long-term safety of gene therapies. The hope is that there will be a genetic cure for hemophilia in the future.

 

QUOTE FOR THURSDAY:

“Although Medical Alert IDs have been around for decades, chances are you may not know the depths of their importance. It is vital for people who have life-threatening or potentially dangerous medical conditions to wear a notification in case of an emergency. It helps first responders and medical personnel recognize the medical conditions, medications, allergies and treatment wishes of the patient.  Wearing a medical ID protects against potentially harmful medical errors.  They can also eliminate trips to the hospital, reduce unnecessary hospital admissions and prevent minor emergencies from becoming major ones.

In an emergency, when you might be unable to speak for yourself, a medical ID bracelet or necklace speaks for you.”

Stellar Benefits Group