Archive | April 2021

QUOTE FOR WEDNESDAY:

EEE virus is a rare cause of brain infections (encephalitis). Only a few cases are reported in the United States each year. Most occur in eastern or Gulf Coast states. Approximately 30% of people with EEE die and many survivors have ongoing neurologic problems.”

Centers for Disease and Control / CDC

Part I What is Eastern Equine Encephalitis?

What is eastern equine encephalitis (EEE)?

Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) belongs to a category of viruses known as arboviruses, or arthropod-borne viruses. Arboviruses are spread by the bites of blood-sucking insects, such as mosquitos and ticks. EEE is spread by the bite of certain kinds of mosquitoes.

What are the risk factors of EEE?

The overall risk of becoming infected with EEE depends on:

  • Exposure to mosquitoes: People who spend a lot of time outdoors or live in wooded areas have a greater chance of being bitten by mosquito.
  • Time of year and day: In the United States, cases of EEE tend to occur from late spring to early fall.. Many kinds of mosquitoes are most active during dusk and dawn and during the early evening hours.
  • Geographic region: Most cases of EEE have been reported in Atlantic and Gulf coast states. Southeastern Massachusetts, particularly Plymouth and Bristol counties, have historically been “hot spots” for EEE. The Massachusetts Dept of Public Health monitors mosquito populations, tests mosquitoes for virus and calculates risks for each town.

Some people with EEE may develop a severe infection that causes brain tissue to become inflamed (encephalitis).The factors that increase one’s risk of getting a severe EEE infection include:

  • Age: Although people of any age can develop a serious infection, the risk is higher for adults older than 50 and children younger than 15.
  • Immune system: People who have a weakened immune system due to cancer treatments, or organ transplantation are more at risk of developing a severe infection.

What are the symptoms of EEE?

Symptoms of EEE generally occur four to 10 days after a person has been infected and include:

  • high fever
  • headache
  • tiredness
  • nausea/vomiting
  • neck stiffness

The symptoms of encephalitis depend on the part of the brain that is inflamed, the amount of inflammation and the person’s age and overall health.

Some of the most common symptoms of encephalitis include:

  • seizures
  • confusion (disorientation)
  • coma

In one-third of cases, encephalitis can be fatal or lead to permanent brain damage.

Because the initial symptoms of EEE resemble those caused by many illnesses, it may be difficult to determine if a child’s symptoms are related to encephalitis. In general, you should take your child to see a doctor if your child has a bad headache, nausea and vomiting, fever or any worrisome changes in behavior (confusion, extreme sleepiness, acting very different, listlessness, lethargy, seizures).

The worst outbreak of eastern equine encephalitis since U.S. health officials began monitoring the mosquito-borne disease 15 years ago is prompting aerial bug spraying and dire warnings to avoid the biting insects well into fall. As of October 1, 31 cases — including nine deaths — have been reported by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Known as EEE or Triple-E for short, the incurable brain infection is still relatively rare — there have been only 103 reported infections in the United States in the past decade. Only five percent of people bitten by an infected mosquito will develop the disease. But about a third of EEE patients die, and many who survive experience permanent neurological problems.

Science News spoke with several researchers about how the virus spreads, and possible factors that might be contributing to the recent surge in cases.

“We don’t know some of the basic details about these [mosquito-transmitted] diseases, unfortunately,” says pathobiologist Stephen Higgs, director of the Biosecurity Research Institute at Kansas State University in Manhattan. “The ideal is to anticipate outbreaks, which is very, very difficult. But we need to be prepared for an outbreak when it comes.”

QUOTE FOR TUESDAY:

“Animals provide many benefits to people. Many people interact with animals in their daily lives, both at home and away from home.  However, animals can sometimes carry harmful germs that can spread to people and cause illness – these are known as zoonotic diseases or zoonoses. Zoonotic diseases are caused by harmful germs like viruses, bacterial, parasites, and fungi. These germs can cause many different types of illnesses in people and animals, ranging from mild to serious illness and even death.  Animals can sometimes appear healthy even when they are carrying germs that can make people sick, depending on the zoonotic disease. ”

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

 

To all animal lovers we do have to be concern with zoonotic diseases!

A further 33 diseases have featured in the World Health Organization’s Disease Outbreak News since its inception in 1996. Of the “big eight”now, six are known zoonotic diseases (diseases from animals) – and the remaining two hepatitis C and Chikungunya are assumed to be so, although the animal reservoir remains undiscovered. Whatever the explanation, hepatitis C (1989), West Nile virus (1999), SARS (2003), Chikungunya (2005), swine flu (2009), MERS (2012), Ebola (2014) and Zika (2015) have all since had their time in the media spotlight.

Since then, emerging diseases have been appearing at an accelerating rate. Part of the explanation for this may simply be that we are much better at detecting them now. On the other hand, population pressure, climate change and ecological degradation may be contributing to a situation where zoonosis – the movement of a disease from a vertebrate animal to a human host – is more common.

A zoonosis (zoonotic disease or zoonoses -plural) is an infectious disease that is transmitted between species from animals to humans (or from humans to animals).

Illnesses Associated with Animal Contact:

1-Rabies Rabies is a disease that affects the nervous system of mammals. It is caused by a virus and is typically spread by an infected animal biting another animal or person. Rabies is a fatal disease; it cannot be treated once symptoms appear. Luckily, rabies can be effectively prevented by vaccination.

2-Blastomycosis (Blastomyces dermatitidisBlastomycosis is a rare fungal infection usually acquired by inhaling the spores of a fungus (Blastomyces dermatitidis) that can be found in wood and soil.  Blastomycosis occurs most often in people living in Ontario, Manitoba, and the south-central, south-eastern, and mid-western United States. In Minnesota, blastomycosis is most common in St. Louis, Itasca, Cass, Beltrami, Washington, and Chisago counties.   The time between exposure to the spores and when symptoms develop varies widely, ranging from 21 to 100 days. The signs and symptoms of blastomycosis vary among individuals. About 50% of infections are asymptomatic (person does not develop any symptoms or disease) or are mild and resolve without treatment.  Some patients develop a chronic lung infection or the disease can spread to other areas of the body (skin, bones, genitourinary system, or central nervous system).

3-Psittacosis (Chlamydophila psittaci, Chlamydia psittaci)
Infection with Chlamydophila psittaci (formerly known as Chlamydia psittaci) is cause of systemic illness in companion birds (birds kept by humans as pets) and poultry. This illness is often referred to as avian chlamydiosis (also known as psittacosis, ornithosis, and parrot fever) in birds.

C. psittaci infection can be transmitted from infected birds to humans. The disease resulting from C. psittaci infection in humans is called psittacosis (also known as parrot disease, parrot fever, and chlamydiosis). Most infections are typically acquired from exposure to pet psittacine (parrots, macaws, parakeets) birds.

Infection with C. psittaci usually occurs when a person inhales organisms that have been aerosolized from dried feces or respiratory tract secretions of infected birds. Other means of exposure include mouth-to-beak contact and handling infected birds’ plumage and tissues.

Psittacosis can result in serious health problems including fatal pneumonia. Diagnosis of psittacosis can be difficult. Antibiotic treatment is recommended.

4-Trichinosis (Trichinella spiralisPeople can become infected with Trichinosis from eating raw or undercooked meat that contains the roundworm larvae. It is most commonly found in wild game meat (such as bear, wild feline, fox, dog, wolf, horse, seal, and walrus) and less commonly, pork. After the meat with the parasite larvae is eaten, the larvae grow into worms in the intestines, which reproduce and make larvae that go into the bloodstream and travel to the skeletal muscle and embed.A few days after eating the roundworm larvae they mature and begin reproducing; during this time symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, fatigue, and abdominal pain. As the larvae go into the bloodstream and embed in the muscle; symptoms can include headaches, fevers, chills, weakness, cough, muscle pain, achy joints, pain/swelling around the face and eyes, light sensitivity, pink eye, itchy skin, extreme thirst, and sometimes incoordination and heart/lung problems. Symptoms can last a few months, to many months in severe cases. The severity depends on how many larvae were ingested.

What is the treatment for Trichinosis?

A mild case may not be noticed. Trichinosis is treated with anti-parasitic drugs, and can be fatal if severe cases are not treated. There is no treatment once the larvae embed in the muscles, pain relievers can help.

5-Cat Scratch Disease-CSD (Bartonella henselae)

Generally people who get CSD are bitten, scratched, or licked by a cat before they get sick.  Fleas are responsible for transmitting B. henselae between cats.  Because kittens are more likely to be infected than adult cats, they are more likely to transmit cat scratch disease to humans.  Cats are the natural reservoir for the bacteria that causes CSD, and generally do not show any signs of illness. Therefore it is impossible to know which cats can spread CSD to you.  It is believed that transmission to humans occurs through contamination of bites or scratches with flea excrement.             There is no human-to-human transmission of CSD.

The duration of illness caused by B. henselae is usually 2 to 4 months with spontaneous recovery. TREATMENT-Supportive treatment & Antibiotics may be used for severely ill patients to speed recovery

6-Histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum)-it is an infection caused by a fungus called Histoplasma. The fungus lives in the environment, particularly in soil that contains large amounts of bird or bat droppings. In the United States, Histoplasma mainly lives in the central and eastern states, especially areas around the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. The fungus also lives in parts of Central and South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia.

People can get histoplasmosis after breathing in the microscopic fungal spores from the air. Although most people who breathe in the spores don’t get sick, those who do may have a fever, cough, and fatigue. Many people who get histoplasmosis will get better on their own without medication, but in some people, such as those who have weakened immune systems, the infection can become severe.

6-Coccidiomycosis (Valley Fever)-Valley fever, also called coccidioidomycosis, is an infection caused by the fungus Coccidioides. The fungus is known to live in the soil in the southwestern United States and parts of Mexico and Central and South America. The fungus was also recently found in south-central Washington. People can get Valley fever by breathing in the microscopic fungal spores from the air, although most people who breathe in the spores don’t get sick. Usually, people who get sick with Valley fever will get better on their own within weeks to months, but some people will need antifungal medication.

7-Intestinal Illness Acquired From Animals
Including E. coli , Cryptosporidium parvum, Campylobacter, and Salmonella.

People usually get intestinal illnesses (foodborne illnesses like E. coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Cryptosporidium) from food and water. But, you can also get any of these from contact with animals or their environments.

In recent years, intestinal diseases associated with places where the public has contact with farm animals (e.g., petting zoos, state or county fairs, educational farms) have been identified with increasing frequency. Minnesota is no exception to this trend.

Keeping Backyard Poultry-An increasing number of people around the country are choosing to keep poultry, such as chickens or ducks, as part of a greener, healthier lifestyle. While you enjoy the benefits of backyard chickens and other poultry, it is important to consider the risk of illnesses, especially in children, that can result from handling live poultry or anything in the area where they are kept.

Staying safe at pet zoos or animal fairs-From mid-June to Labor Day is fair season in Minnesota. Each year, fairs across the state provide opportunities to eat deep fried delicacies and interact with livestock and poultry. But these interactions aren’t without risk — animals can carry germs that can make people sick. The risk can be minimized with careful handwashing and taking a few simple precautions.

Spotlight on particular home animal pets:

8-Salmonella- Some Reptiles and Amphibians-They can make cool pets, but they can also be a source of illness. Reptiles (e.g., Iguanas, turtles, snakes) and amphibians (e.g., frogs and toads) carry Salmonella.

Always wash hands after handling reptiles and/or amphibians.   Reptiles and amphibians should not be kept as pets in households with young children (i.e. less than 5 years old) or other high risk individuals, including pregnant women, older persons and the immune-compromised.  Reptiles and amphibians should not be kept in child care centers, schools, or other facilities with children younger than 5 years old.

Salmonella-Chicks and Ducklings:
Those cute little chicks and ducklings can be a great attraction for children this time of year, but they can also be a source of illness, so it’s important for those who handle them to take steps to prevent infection.

 

QUOTE FOR MONDAY:

Williams syndrome is a genetic condition that affects many parts of the body. Signs and symptoms include mild to moderate intellectual disability; unique personality traits; distinctive facial features; and heart and blood vessel problems.[1] Williams syndrome is caused by a person missing more than 25 genes from a specific area of chromosome 7 (a “deletion”).[1][2] The loss of these genes contributes to the characteristic features.[1] Although Williams syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition, most cases are not inherited and occur sporadically in people with no family history of Williams syndrome. Treatments are based on each person’s signs and symptoms, as there is no cure at this time”

NIH / GARD

WILLIAMS SYNDROME

Williams Syndrome1 williams-syndrome-2

Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition that is present at birth and can affect anyone.  It is characterized by medical problems, including cardiovascular disease, developmental delays, and learning disabilities.  The most significant medical problem associated with WS is the cardiovascular disease caused by the narrowed arteries. WS is also associated with elevated blood calcium levels in infancy. A random genetic mutation (deletion of a small piece of chromosome 7), rather than inheritance, most often causes the disorder. Williams syndrome is considered an autosomal dominant condition because one copy of the altered chromosome 7 in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. In a small percentage of cases, people with Williams syndrome inherit the chromosomal deletion from a parent with the condition.

Most cases of Williams syndrome are not inherited but occur as random events during the formation of reproductive cells (eggs or sperm) in a parent of an affected individual. These cases occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family.

However, individuals who have WS have a 50 percent chance of passing it on if they decide to have children. These often occur side by side with striking verbal abilities, highly social personalities and an affinity for music.

WS affects 1 in 7,500 – 10,000 people worldwide – an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 people in the United States. It is known to occur equally in both males and females and in every culture.

 Unlike disorders that can make connecting with your child difficult, children with Williams syndrome tend to be social, friendly and endearing.  Parents often say the joy and perspective a child with WS brings into their lives had been unimaginable.

But there are major struggles as well.  Many babies have life-threatening cardiovascular problems.  Children with WS need costly and ongoing medical care and early interventions (such as speech or occupational therapy) that may not be covered by insurance or state funding.  As they grow, they struggle with things like spatial relations, numbers, and abstract reasoning, which can make daily tasks a challenge. As adults, most people with Williams syndrome will need supportive housing to live to their fullest potential.  Many adults with WS contribute to their communities as volunteers or paid employees; often working at assisted living homes for senior citizens, hospitals and libraries, or as store greeters or veterinary aides.

 However, individuals who have WS have a 50 percent chance of passing it on if they decide to have children. The characteristic facial features of WS include puffiness around the eyes, a short nose with a broad nasal tip, wide mouth, full cheeks, full lips, and a small chin. People with WS are also likely to have a long neck, sloping shoulders, short stature, limited mobility in their joints, and curvature of the spine. Some individuals with WS have a star-like pattern in the iris of their eyes. Infants with WS are often irritable and colicky, with feeding problems that keep them from gaining weight. Chronic abdominal pain is common in adolescents and adults. By age 30, the majority of individuals with WS have diabetes or pre-diabetes and mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (a form of deafness due to disturbed function of the auditory nerve). For some people, hearing loss may begin as early as late childhood. WS also is associated with a characteristic “cognitive profile” of mental strengths and weaknesses composed of strengths in verbal short-term memory and language, combined with severe weakness in visuospatial construction (the skills used to copy patterns, draw, or write). Most older children and adults with WS speak fluently and use good grammar. More than 50% of children with WS have attention deficit disorders (ADD or ADHD), and about 50% have specific phobias, such as a fear of loud noises. The majority of individuals with WS worry excessively.

Unfortunately there is no cure for Williams syndrome, nor is there a standard course of treatment. 

The prognosis for individuals with WS varies. Some degree of impaired intellect is found in most people with the disorder. Some adults are able to function independently, complete academic or vocational school, and live in supervised homes or on their own; most live with a caregiver.

Where you can find additional information about Williams syndrome:

You may find the following resources about Williams syndrome helpful. These materials are written for the general public.

 

 

 

  

QUOTE FOR THE WEEKEND:

“Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when stomach acid frequently flows back into the tube connecting your mouth and stomach (esophagus). This backwash (acid reflux) can irritate the lining of your esophagus.”

MAYO CLINIC

What is GERD or ACID REFLUX? Its a common diagnosis in America.

What is acid reflux? A gastrointestinal (GI) disease that is caused by a valve located between the esophagus and stomach, which normally is a strong muscular ring of tissue. This valve normally opens and closes completely preventing food backing up (called reflux) in the esophagus allowing the contents to reach the throat to the mouth. With acid reflux, what happens is this valve gets over expanded frequently to the point the valve gets overstretched and no longer fits over the opening between the esophagus and the stomach with a tight fit. Due to loss of the elasticity it now is allowing leakage from the stomach with both food and fluids going up the esophagus to the throat to the mouth due to the action of reflux, during the digestion process. What happens during digestion the stomach contents with digestive fluids from the stomach (which are acidic) are refluxed, that are NOT normally in the esophagus. In conclusion, reflux sends stomach contents that’s returning (an acidic environment) upward in the esophagus which is now in an environment not use to being exposed to the digestive fluids=acidity, which are needed to perform the digestion process of our foods/fluids that are in the stomach only. This leakage of the valve is the cause of this problem occurring=GERD or GASTROINTESTINAL REFLUX.

When you don’t have GERD food and fluids, the nutrients we swallow goes down the esophagus to the valve where it opens letting the contents into the stomach.  Than digestion takes place in about 1-2 hours after eating with no feeling of heartburn or foods or fluids we ate don’t come back up in our throat to the mouth. Normally the valve is tight enough in preventing reflux=no leakage (the primary purpose of its function). This means during digestion the food gets into the stomach which is broken down into smaller particles by the digestive acid fluids allowing the nutrients to pass into the bloodstream with the waste products staying in the stomach to reach the rectum.  So when stomach digestion is complete it passes all the waste products onto the smaller intestines to the larger intestines to the rectum to be evacuated, without leakage or reflux.

The signs and symptoms (s/s) of GERD or acid reflux:

1-Heartburn is the classic GERD symptom. It’s best described as a burning sensation in the chest and/or discomfort in the upper belly or abdomen accompanied by a feeling of fullness.
2- Regurgitation is the involuntary return of partially digested food from the stomach into the mouth. This uncomfortable symptom is commonly caused by GERD, since the esophageal sphincter (valve) is damaged to such a severe degree that the stomach juices (acidotic) can freely reflux to the level of the throat or mouth.
3-Pain present behind the sternum (chest pain) to the upper mid abdomen (where the stomach is). If severe call your M.D. or doctor to have evaluated (especially if in the chest).
4-Chronic cough to hoarseness                                                                       5-Recurrent pneumonias                                                                         6-Bloating 7-Nausea 8-Vomiting (yellow/green)
9-Lump in the throat 10-Difficulty swallowing                                                   11-Chronic sore throat 12-Laryngitis 13-Post nasal drip
14-Ear Aches 15-Tooth decay or gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) or bad breath this is due to the acid fluids with the foods and fluids regurgitated back to the mouth from the stomach.

Complications that are caused by GERD when left untreated: 1-Narrowing of the esophagus called esophageal stricture. This is due to damage to cells in the lower esophageal from acid exposure that leads to scarring of the tissue. The scar tissue narrows the food pathway causing difficulty to swallow called dysphagia.
2-Esophagitis – inflammation of the esophagus. This constant backwash of acid can irritate the lining of your esophagus. Over time, the inflammation can cause complications such as bleeding or breathing problems leading into the next problem. 3-Esophageal Ulcers – Due to frequent exposure to acidic fluids and foods to the esophagus the mucosa gets irritated so bad it will even erode the mucosa causing skin ulceration. The esophagus environment is not use to the stomach’s = acidic. Take the outer skin of the body, if exposed long enough to acidic chemicals the skin will burn. Same principle for the esophagus constantly exposed to the environment of the stomach’s content of acidic fluids every time digestion takes place.
4-Precancerous changes to the esophagus (Barrett’s esophagus). In Barrett’s esophagus, the color and composition of the tissue lining the lower esophagus change. These changes are associated with risk of esophageal cancer. The risk of cancer is low. Cancer is rare but can happen (adenocarcinoma of the esophagus).

Risk factors=Conditions that increase the risk of GERD would
include: Obesity, Pregnancy, Smoking, Dry Mouth, Diabetes, Asthma, Connective Tissue Disorders like scleroderma, delayed stomach empting, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) (This is a rare disorder characterized by one or more tumors in the pancreas, duodenum, or both. The tumors cause the stomach to make too much acid, leading to peptic ulcers in the duodenum. The tumors are sometimes cancerous and spread to other areas of the body.).

The key to treatment is prevention but if already diagnosed GERD than it would be maintenance. There is no one answer but start with being checked by your physician if you have any symptoms indicative of this diagnosis. Start with a getting a very good diagnostic tool ordered by your doctor called an Upper GI series (endoscopy) and when it’s done it will tell the M.D. a lot in what’s going on.

Then there is medications as a remedy, that can be useful, they are classified as proton pump inhibitors to H2 Inhibitors with more.

Another great key to the treatment is your LIFESTYLE=Diet (not eating acid foods, not eating fast), activity/exercise, your height compared to your weight (BMI or simply what you weigh) and lastly if you practice healthy vs. unhealthy habits.

If you would like to learn more about this come back tomorrow to my web page when I go further on the topic GERD (part 2) regarding the diet for the disease.

Part I To all animal lovers we do have to be concern with zoonotic diseases!

A further 33 diseases have featured in the World Health Organization’s Disease Outbreak News since its inception in 1996. Of the “big eight”now, six are known zoonotic diseases (diseases from animals) – and the remaining two hepatitis C and Chikungunya are assumed to be so, although the animal reservoir remains undiscovered. Whatever the explanation, hepatitis C (1989), West Nile virus (1999), SARS (2003), Chikungunya (2005), swine flu (2009), MERS (2012), Ebola (2014) and Zika (2015) have all since had their time in the media spotlight.

Since then, emerging diseases have been appearing at an accelerating rate. Part of the explanation for this may simply be that we are much better at detecting them now. On the other hand, population pressure, climate change and ecological degradation may be contributing to a situation where zoonosis – the movement of a disease from a vertebrate animal to a human host – is more common.

A zoonosis (zoonotic disease or zoonoses -plural) is an infectious disease that is transmitted between species from animals to humans (or from humans to animals).

Illnesses Associated with Animal Contact:

1-Rabies Rabies is a disease that affects the nervous system of mammals. It is caused by a virus and is typically spread by an infected animal biting another animal or person. Rabies is a fatal disease; it cannot be treated once symptoms appear. Luckily, rabies can be effectively prevented by vaccination.

2-Blastomycosis (Blastomyces dermatitidisBlastomycosis is a rare fungal infection usually acquired by inhaling the spores of a fungus (Blastomyces dermatitidis) that can be found in wood and soil.  Blastomycosis occurs most often in people living in Ontario, Manitoba, and the south-central, south-eastern, and mid-western United States. In Minnesota, blastomycosis is most common in St. Louis, Itasca, Cass, Beltrami, Washington, and Chisago counties.   The time between exposure to the spores and when symptoms develop varies widely, ranging from 21 to 100 days. The signs and symptoms of blastomycosis vary among individuals. About 50% of infections are asymptomatic (person does not develop any symptoms or disease) or are mild and resolve without treatment.  Some patients develop a chronic lung infection or the disease can spread to other areas of the body (skin, bones, genitourinary system, or central nervous system).

3-Psittacosis (Chlamydophila psittaci, Chlamydia psittaci)
Infection with Chlamydophila psittaci (formerly known as Chlamydia psittaci) is cause of systemic illness in companion birds (birds kept by humans as pets) and poultry. This illness is often referred to as avian chlamydiosis (also known as psittacosis, ornithosis, and parrot fever) in birds.

C. psittaci infection can be transmitted from infected birds to humans. The disease resulting from C. psittaci infection in humans is called psittacosis (also known as parrot disease, parrot fever, and chlamydiosis). Most infections are typically acquired from exposure to pet psittacine (parrots, macaws, parakeets) birds.

Infection with C. psittaci usually occurs when a person inhales organisms that have been aerosolized from dried feces or respiratory tract secretions of infected birds. Other means of exposure include mouth-to-beak contact and handling infected birds’ plumage and tissues.

Psittacosis can result in serious health problems including fatal pneumonia. Diagnosis of psittacosis can be difficult. Antibiotic treatment is recommended.

4-Trichinosis (Trichinella spiralisPeople can become infected with Trichinosis from eating raw or undercooked meat that contains the roundworm larvae. It is most commonly found in wild game meat (such as bear, wild feline, fox, dog, wolf, horse, seal, and walrus) and less commonly, pork. After the meat with the parasite larvae is eaten, the larvae grow into worms in the intestines, which reproduce and make larvae that go into the bloodstream and travel to the skeletal muscle and embed.A few days after eating the roundworm larvae they mature and begin reproducing; during this time symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, fatigue, and abdominal pain. As the larvae go into the bloodstream and embed in the muscle; symptoms can include headaches, fevers, chills, weakness, cough, muscle pain, achy joints, pain/swelling around the face and eyes, light sensitivity, pink eye, itchy skin, extreme thirst, and sometimes incoordination and heart/lung problems. Symptoms can last a few months, to many months in severe cases. The severity depends on how many larvae were ingested.

What is the treatment for Trichinosis?

A mild case may not be noticed. Trichinosis is treated with anti-parasitic drugs, and can be fatal if severe cases are not treated. There is no treatment once the larvae embed in the muscles, pain relievers can help.

5-Cat Scratch Disease-CSD (Bartonella henselae)

Generally people who get CSD are bitten, scratched, or licked by a cat before they get sick.  Fleas are responsible for transmitting B. henselae between cats.  Because kittens are more likely to be infected than adult cats, they are more likely to transmit cat scratch disease to humans.  Cats are the natural reservoir for the bacteria that causes CSD, and generally do not show any signs of illness. Therefore it is impossible to know which cats can spread CSD to you.  It is believed that transmission to humans occurs through contamination of bites or scratches with flea excrement.             There is no human-to-human transmission of CSD.

The duration of illness caused by B. henselae is usually 2 to 4 months with spontaneous recovery. TREATMENT-Supportive treatment & Antibiotics may be used for severely ill patients to speed recovery

6-Histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum)-it is an infection caused by a fungus called Histoplasma. The fungus lives in the environment, particularly in soil that contains large amounts of bird or bat droppings. In the United States, Histoplasma mainly lives in the central and eastern states, especially areas around the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. The fungus also lives in parts of Central and South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia.

People can get histoplasmosis after breathing in the microscopic fungal spores from the air. Although most people who breathe in the spores don’t get sick, those who do may have a fever, cough, and fatigue. Many people who get histoplasmosis will get better on their own without medication, but in some people, such as those who have weakened immune systems, the infection can become severe.

6-Coccidiomycosis (Valley Fever)-Valley fever, also called coccidioidomycosis, is an infection caused by the fungus Coccidioides. The fungus is known to live in the soil in the southwestern United States and parts of Mexico and Central and South America. The fungus was also recently found in south-central Washington. People can get Valley fever by breathing in the microscopic fungal spores from the air, although most people who breathe in the spores don’t get sick. Usually, people who get sick with Valley fever will get better on their own within weeks to months, but some people will need antifungal medication.

7-Intestinal Illness Acquired From Animals
Including E. coli , Cryptosporidium parvum, Campylobacter, and Salmonella.

People usually get intestinal illnesses (foodborne illnesses like E. coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Cryptosporidium) from food and water. But, you can also get any of these from contact with animals or their environments.

In recent years, intestinal diseases associated with places where the public has contact with farm animals (e.g., petting zoos, state or county fairs, educational farms) have been identified with increasing frequency. Minnesota is no exception to this trend.

Keeping Backyard Poultry-An increasing number of people around the country are choosing to keep poultry, such as chickens or ducks, as part of a greener, healthier lifestyle. While you enjoy the benefits of backyard chickens and other poultry, it is important to consider the risk of illnesses, especially in children, that can result from handling live poultry or anything in the area where they are kept.

Staying safe at pet zoos or animal fairs-From mid-June to Labor Day is fair season in Minnesota. Each year, fairs across the state provide opportunities to eat deep fried delicacies and interact with livestock and poultry. But these interactions aren’t without risk — animals can carry germs that can make people sick. The risk can be minimized with careful handwashing and taking a few simple precautions.

Spotlight on particular home animal pets:

8-Salmonella- Some Reptiles and Amphibians-They can make cool pets, but they can also be a source of illness. Reptiles (e.g., Iguanas, turtles, snakes) and amphibians (e.g., frogs and toads) carry Salmonella.

Always wash hands after handling reptiles and/or amphibians.   Reptiles and amphibians should not be kept as pets in households with young children (i.e. less than 5 years old) or other high risk individuals, including pregnant women, older persons and the immune-compromised.  Reptiles and amphibians should not be kept in child care centers, schools, or other facilities with children younger than 5 years old.

Salmonella-Chicks and Ducklings:
Those cute little chicks and ducklings can be a great attraction for children this time of year, but they can also be a source of illness, so it’s important for those who handle them to take steps to prevent infection.

stayed tune for part II on Bioterrism Disease

 

QUOTE FOR FRIDAY:

“Almost 1 out of 3 people in the United States will develop shingles in their lifetime. Most people who get shingles will have it only once. However, you can get the disease more than once.

Your risk of getting shingles increases as you get older. The most common complication of shingles is postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), which is severe pain in the areas where the shingles rash occurred. About 10 to 18% of people who get shingles will experience PHN. The risk of PHN also increases with age.

Children can get shingles, but it is not common.”

Center for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC)