Archive | April 2015


In this study, eating sugar, either from table sugar, honey or unsweetened orange juice, depressed the immune system of healthy volunteers by about 50 percent for up to five hours. If you eat sugar at every meal, it means that your immune system will be functioning at half-capacity for most of the day.

“USA Today”  (2009)

Excess of Insulin in the body!

We know usually anything in excess is usually not good for you.  For example, you eat too much you put yourself at a potential for obesity and if junk food at risk in time putting yourself at risk for atherosclerosis.  I could go I will get to the point.  Let us take insulin in the human body which is good for you, too much of it puts you at potential for heart disease.

Naturally this is how insulin works:  Given a short version of its function in the body is it is produced by the pancreas, we eat than digestion takes place, all the fat/CHO/ sugar and calories in the food in the stomach are broken down to smaller sugar molecules (like glucose, sucrose, etc..) than dumped in our blood.  This free sugar in the blood goes through out our bloodstream and sugar is energy too our human body.  So whatever tissue needs energy that minute is used in our body but for that to happen it has to go into our cells to be utilized and transferred into the tissue.  This is where INSULIN comes into play.  It allows sugar to pass into our cells.  If you have NO INSULIN the sugar doesn’t pass into the cell remaining freely in our blood stream like in a Diabetic that is why they have high sugar levels unless their on medication from oral to actual types of insulin to allow their sugar to pass into cells and be utilized the natural way.

Now lets get into EXCESS OF INSULIN and what happens:

There are several stages involved in the development of heart disease. Unfortunately having too much insulin in your blood is involved in each and every stage.

Stage 1: First excessive insulin raises the level of bad cholesterol in the blood – the LDL version. At the same time it decreases the level of “good” cholesterol – the HDL variety. Then it goes on to increase the level of triglycerides in the blood – yet another risk factor for heart disease. Excessive insulin also causes your blood to clot more quickly which increases your risk of stroke. Though your kidneys are not insulin sensitive, when your insulin level is elevated it indirectly causes your kidneys to retain salt and fluid which further increases your blood pressure.

Stage 2: In this stage excessive insulin increases cellular proliferation which damages the lining of your blood vessels. This increases the blood vessels vulnerability and sets the stage for even more blood vessel damage.

Stage 3: In this third stage insulin plays a different role. There are two very different kinds of LDL cholesterol. “Pattern A” LDL cholesterol is light, floats on water and represents no particular threat to the human body. But “Pattern B” LDL is a smaller particle, much more dense form that’s intimately involved in the heart disease process. That’s because it’s this denser form that attaches itself to the blood vessel lining to form artery-clogging plaques. Excessive insulin increases this more dangerous form of LDL. It’s this kind of LDL that forms the “fatty streak” plaques that are the hallmark of early heart disease.

Stage 4: Excessive insulin promotes the conversion of specialized cells called microphages in your blood into foam cells which further promotes the formation of dangerous plaques.

Stage 5: Before the plaque becomes dangerous it must be oxidized by free radicals. Once again insulin plays a role by increasing the level of dangerous tissue-damaging free radicals in your blood. The smaller dense LDL particles that excessive insulin promotes are more subject to free radical oxidation.

Stage 6: This damage to your blood vessel lining triggers an inflammatory response which contributes to the vicious cycle. Excessive insulin boosts inflammation throughout the body including within the lining of blood vessels. Many medical researchers feel that inflammation plays a major role in heart disease and excessive insulin plays a major role in generating it. In addition, studies have shown that this increased level of inflammation can directly damage brain neurons. (The C-reactive blood test measures the level of inflammation in your body. Today more and more doctors are using the test in recognition of the key role inflammation plays in so many different diseases.)

Stage 7: As the plaque builds over the years, it eventually restricts the flow of blood causing either chest pain or other symptoms in other parts of your body. If the blood vessels feeding the brain become restricted, your brain function will inevitably be affected. In numerous studies where insulin was injected into the blood vessels of lab animals, it was found that thick artery clogging plaques accumulated just downstream from the injection sites.

Stage 8: Excessive insulin also directly stimulates the central nervous system raising blood pressure which further increases the risk of a heart attack or stroke. At this stage you may experience TIAs (transient  ischemic attacks) which are small strokes that damage small areas of your brain. Damage caused by TIAs are commonly found in the brains of deceased Alzheimer’s patients. Stage 9: Excessive insulin causes the body to increase it’s excretion of magnesium which causes a magnesium deficiency which can then trigger arterial spasms that can directly cause a heart attack. If a heart attack doesn’t get you, remember that excessive insulin has already increased the blood’s tendency to clot. A blood clot can easily form at the site of the spasm and travel to other areas of the body such as the lungs where it can cause a fatal embolism.

Stage 10: You’re officially diagnosed as having heart disease and if that isn’t bad enough this diagnosis dramatically increases your risk of dementia and premature death.  After reading the above it should come as no shock that studies have found that fatal heart attacks are three times more likely after a high carbohydrate meal than after a high fat/protein meal!



Largest outbreak in West Africa 2014, largest in history that showed 24,000 cases plus with 14,000 plus deaths by the CDC.


Part 3 Lets see the facts of Ebola, healthcare workers & previous epidemics.

Lets see the facts Ebola:

After you return, monitor your health for 21 days and seek medical care immediately if you develop symptoms of: Symptoms of Ebola including:

  • Fever (greater than 38.6°C or 101.5°F)
  • Severe headache
  • Muscle pain
  • Weakness
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal (stomach) pain
  • Unexplained hemorrhage (bleeding or bruising)

Symptoms may appear anywhere from 2 to 21 days after exposure to Ebola, but the average is 8 to 10 days.

Recovery from Ebola depends on good supportive clinical care and the patient’s immune response. People who recover from Ebola infection develop antibodies that last for at least 10 years.

Reference on symptoms of Eboli: (

Healthcare workers who may be exposed to people with Ebola should follow these steps:

  • Wear protective clothing, including masks, gloves, gowns, and eye protection.
  • Practice proper infection control and sterilization measures. For more information, see “Infection Control for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers in the African Health Care Setting”.
  • Isolate patients with Ebola from other patients.
  • Avoid direct contact with the bodies of people who have died from Ebola.
  • Notify health officials if you have had direct contact with the blood or body fluids, such as but not limited to, feces, saliva, urine, vomit, and semen of a person who is sick with Ebola. The virus can enter the body through broken skin or unprotected mucous membranes in, for example, the eyes, nose, or mouth.

Looking at some of the history is as follows:

In 1995, an outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola HF) affected more than 300 people in and around the city of Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly, Zaire); approximately 80% of the patients died. More than one-fourth of all the patients were health care workers. After the outbreak, the DRC Ministry of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) developed practical recommendations for carrying out viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) isolation precautions in rural health facilities in Africa. These recommendations have been consolidated in a manual for the local health community but something needs to be put into play in getting this epidemic under control if not history noted for repeating itself would be a shame in see results like the following:


The Black Death, 1918 Spanish Flu, HIV/AIDS (As of 2011 at least 60 million people had been infected by AIDS and 25 million had died. while in 2008 an estimated 1.2 million Americans had HIV, Sub-Saharan Africa alone was home to 22.9 million cases, with one in five adults infected. About 35.3 million people were believed to have HIV in 2012.), The Plague of Justinian (ultimately killed 25 million people dead), The Antonine Plague, Cholera, reference to this information is at to go further into details about them.


Other epidemics are Polio, Typhus (camp fever), Malaria, Small Pox, Yellow Fever, The Flu in 1918 before the vaccine. The flu only survived for a year, this strain of virus was responsible for the deaths of 50 to 100 million people, as it was able to quickly spread

from country to country as troops and soldiers returned home from WWI from all around the globe. Symptoms were common to those in today’s influenza virus. Also the death for many was the complication of the flu in causing fluid build up in the lungs causing the death (from probably putting the pt into the complication septicemia or or those with or without congestive heart failure going into a exacerbation without having effectively removing the fluids by getting better and ending result drowning in their own lungs).

This is not a pretty picture in having to repeat in history for some Epidemic to occur in our time; which could be Ebola.

Although there is still a great deal to learn about Ebola HF, two observations from the Kikwit outbreak strongly indicate that future outbreaks of this magnitude could be prevented:

  • The first case occurred in January 1995, but went unrecognized as Ebola HF by health-care workers. This one case started a chain of transmission of the virus that finally was recognized in April of that year, when many more cases appeared. The outbreak peaked in May. Thus, between January and April, there was a window of opportunity that could have allowed early detection and proper management of patients; the early response might have prevented widespread transmission of the virus.
  • After an international investigation team arrived in May 1995 and worked with Kikwit medical community to introduce VHF isolation precautions as well as standard precautions, no further nosocomial transmission of the virus was documented, indicating that although Ebola HF is highly infectious, the use of these measures is effective in preventing the spread of disease. Questionable by many since we have it in our country starting an epidemic and it is already an active one in Africa now.
  • The observations sent a strong message to the public health and medical communities in Africa and internationally: combining early suspicion of VHF and isolation precautions can help to prevent another serious outbreak of Ebola HF or other VHF in the future. The only question remaining was how these goals could be achieved in a region where resources are scarce and the health care infrastructure is either underdeveloped or deteriorating. This manual, prepared collaboratively by CDC and WHO, attempts to address the issues of early provisional diagnosis and response within a limited infrastructure. It is designed for the following uses:
  • for prevention through preparedness–to help African health facilities make advance preparations for responding with appropriate precautions when a VHF case is suspected.
  • for planning and conducting in-service training to strengthen standard precautions and VHF isolation precautions. With follow up by superiors of the facility, from floor managers to nursing education depts.
  • as a rapid reference when a VHF case appears at a health facility where no previous VHF preparations have been made give the following by CDC:
  • The recommendations in the manual make use of common, low-cost supplies, such as household bleach, water, cotton cloth, and plastic sheeting. Step-by-step instructions for implementing the recommendations are presented along with instructional aids for easy reference in health centers. For further information on this go to
  • God willing this becomes no epidemic in our country with our government taking better and stronger actions in prevention of diseases spreading in this country. In carrying out stricter rules and regulations which should have been laid down awhile ago regarding people living here or just visiting that travel to and from different countries. This is should have taken place already just by looking at our history of epidemics that have occurred from spread diseases that came some other than United States.


“Most, really all, prior outbreaks occurred in areas where the affected population was relatively thinly scattered and the movement of people in and out of the area was minimal and slow. This outbreak is happening where there are much larger concentrations of population and a lot of movement of people. This has simply upped the chance of transmission in close quarters (higher density).”

Greg Laden (Science Blogs)

Part 2 How bad is Ebola elsewhere and what are its signs & symptoms?

How bad is it elsewhere? In West Africa, pretty bad. Lack of resources and a slow global response has let the virus run wild. Over at Nature, they used WHO data to illustrate just how terrifying it’s getting. For an on-the-ground perspective, see what Karin Huster, a healthcare worker who just got back from treating Ebola in Liberia’s clinics, told R29. We’re also beginning to feel the first economic effects of the crisis. What is the CDC doing to stop the spread of Ebola? Well, the first thing to remember is that the U.S. is not in the middle of the same kind of outbreak those in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia have been dealing with for months now. Ebola has not spread to the general American population, and those who have contracted the virus here have been in close contact with someone who was already severely infected. Complicating matters, the nurses who cared for Duncan report that they were forced to do so without proper training or equipment. And, Vinson says that she called the CDC before getting on her flight with a low-grade fever, but was told her temperature did not surpass the dangerous threshold (100.4 degrees Fahrenheit). However, the CDC has learned from its slow response to Dallas and has vowed to dispatch an Ebola response team to any hospital in the country with a confirmed case of the

How contagious is Ebola? Compared to other diseases you are more likely to get (such as enterovirus D68, the measles, and the flu), Ebola is not very contagious. It has a long incubation period (21 days) during which an infected person may begin to show symptoms. But, as far as we know, that person is not contagious until he or she is symptomatic. Ebola can only be spread by: direct contact with the bodily fluids of someone who is contagious (e.g., blood, urine, vomit); objects that have been contaminated with those fluids; or infected mammals, such as bats.

What are the symptoms of Ebola? Fever, headache, muscle pain, severe vomiting, and bloody diarrhea, among other unpleasant things. These symptoms hit hard and and they hit fast. They also get worse the longer you’re infected. So, if you feel kind of icky but are still dragging yourself to work, you’re probably Ebola-free. Can we treat it? Not in every case. We have several experimental options, such as ZMapp, that have worked for some human cases or in animals. But, American scientists are still working on a cure that can save as many people as possible — and get approved by the FDA, too. Chinese and Russian scientists are on the case too, reportedly working on a cure and vaccine, respectively. But, Ebola is not necessarily a death sentence. About half of the people who have contracted it worldwide have lived to tell the tale. The CDC says whether or not you survive depends on your immune system and the quality of care you’re getting. And, when a person recovers from the virus, he or she will have antibodies that will protect against Ebola infection for at least 10 years. Can we protect against it? Yes — with proper hand hygiene, basic public health tactics, a vaccine on the way, and a ramped-up CDC response. Finally, I reinforce that unless you have had direct contact with the bodily fluids of someone with Ebola when that person was contagious (or if you’ve eaten some bushmeat recently), then your risk for Ebola are low and you don’t need to worry about getting it. Really, even Fox News says so. Instead, you should probably just get yourself a flu shot with how much higher you are at risk of getting the flu as opposed to the disease Ebola but our country should take strict action in preventing a disease epidemic in travelers coming back or from Africa to the US or any other country that has this disease in their country, safety for the people in America.
How is Ebola so deadly:

Lets look here on how it works: Symptoms start in two days to three weeks after contracting the virus, with a fever, sore throat, muscle pain, and headaches. Typically, vomiting, diarrhea, and rash follow, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys. Looking at a car the engine of the human body is the heart, the liver Are we absolutely sure it’s not airborne? Pretty much.

Some of these fears can be traced to a 2012 paper in which researchers found that one strain of Ebola in pigs could be transmitted to macaque monkeys housed in separate cages. But, this effect has only been shown in animals. Although some scientists have suggested that the virus may have mutated into a more contagious (i.e. airborne) form, this has not been confirmed and remains extremely unlikely. Plenty of other scientists have proclaimed their disagreement.

Symptoms start two days to three weeks after contracting the virus, with a fever, sore throat, muscle pain, and headaches. Typically, vomiting, diarrhea, and rash follow, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys. Which means in English your organs, the kidney and the liver go in decreased function and not resolved will go into failure and with the these 2 organs doing that it effects the rest of your organs. Just like a car if your oil or transmission or both aren’t functioning properly it will affect your engine (and the heart is our engine to the human body where your oil and transmission are like the kidneys and liver for example as a metaphor). Ending line one system affected with multiple systems failing with no treatment death occurs whether a car or human body.


“Ebola is an infectious and generally fatal disease marked by fever and severe internal bleeding, spread through contact with infected body fluids by a filovirus ( Ebola virus ), whose normal host species is unknown.”

Center of Disease Control (CDC).

What is Ebola and how does it spread?

According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC )the 2014 Ebola epidemic is the largest in history, affecting in West Africa. One imported case from Liberia and associated locally acquired cases in healthcare workers have been documented. CDC and partners are taking precautions to prevent the further spread of Ebola within the United States. We should have taken action with making limitations a long time ago but again our government seems to worry about other countries more than our own or else we would not have this potential epidemic. Look at what is finally being doing in airports at least in New York regarding visitors coming from Africa, they are being checked for disease in someway, that should have started years ago with the increase or population into our country from people unfortunately in other countries with more disease due to less protection or action due to their economy and what they can afford. Yet, in the end our government needs to protect us the US citizens and have a regulation much more tighter than it was if US citizens for whatever the reason is leaving this country to other countries for business (EX. News Report Employees.) or vacation is allowed; which it has been going on for ages. The key factor like to almost any disease or infection in or out of hospitals is: Prevention!

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MSF (Médecins Sans Frontières) health staff in protective clothing constructing perimeter for isolation ward.

***Background of the disease Ebola

***The Ebola virus causes an acute, serious illness which is often fatal if untreated. Ebola virus disease (EVD) first appeared in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.

The past current outbreak in West Africa, (first cases notified in March 2014), is the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak since the Ebola virus was first discovered in 1976. There have been more cases and deaths in this outbreak than all others combined. It has also spread between countries starting in Guinea then spreading across land borders to Sierra Leone and Liberia, by air (1 traveller only) to Nigeria, and by land (1 traveller) to Senegal. God willing we do something fast enough with all the medical technology we have in America and fine a way to control it in our own country; we came through in controlling the flu and so many other epidemics.

The most severely affected countries, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia have very weak health systems, lacking human and infrastructural resources, having only recently emerged from long periods of conflict and instability. On August 8, the WHO Director-General declared this outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Well the US better do something fast to prevent both me and many others in this home land to keep us safe. By the way I am RN 26 years and this topic Ebola concerns me terribly.

PRESENTLY NOW according to the CDC this is the case with Ebola since this past Monday, “there are about 8,900 cases of Ebola infection worldwide with almost 4,500 deaths as of this week. And, the World Health Organization announced on Monday that we may see 10,000 new cases per week by December. Yes, that headline-making virus has now also made its way to the U.S. But, no, you will still probably not get it. Here’s what we know, and what you need to know about today’s Ebola situation.”

Transmission of Ebola

It is thought that fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are natural Ebola virus hosts. Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines found ill or dead or in the rainforest that picked up this virus.

Ebola then spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and with surfaces and materials (e.g. bedding, clothing) contaminated with these fluids.

Health-care workers have frequently been infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed EVD. This has occurred through close contact with patients when infection control precautions are not strictly practiced or taught to the medical workers through detailed and concise information with written instructions, proper demonstration, with most important follow up by health care worker superiors like managers to nursing education depts.

For further information on this go to my reference World Health Organization. *** There is no FDA-approved vaccine available for Ebola, unfortunately but like most after damage occurs in enough quantities (which is the case) in time most diseases come up with one regarding the many over the few diseases we haven’t seem to have invented yet. So the key for this disease right now is PREVENTION of it.

Keep in mind through the CDC we are in the U.S. working on a treatment. Let us take a look.

“Experimental vaccines and treatments for Ebola are under development, but they have not yet been fully tested for safety or effectiveness.

Recovery from Ebola depends on good supportive care and the patient’s immune response. People who recover from Ebola infection develop antibodies that last for at least 10 years, possibly longer. It isn’t known if people who recover are immune for life or if they can become infected with a different species of Ebola. Some people who have recovered from Ebola have developed long-term complications, such as joint and vision problems.”

Here are some tips given by the CDC (Center for Disease Control): If you travel to or are in an area affected by an Ebola outbreak, make sure to do the following:

  • Practice careful hygiene. For example, wash your hands with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer and avoid contact with blood and body fluids.
  • Do not handle items that may have come in contact with an infected person’s blood or body fluids (such as clothes, bedding, needles, and medical equipment). In a hospital patients with contaminating diseases through blood, secretions or fluids of the body is when contact isolation is used to prevent the spread of diseases (EX. MRSA, VRE)that can be spread through contact with open wounds, urine, blood, simple secretions of the body (even tears or fluids coming from the eye). Health care workers making contact with a patient on contact isolation are required to wear gloves, a gown, even a mask if one wants (which I without question do for any contact isolation a pt is on for their contaminating disease to prevent spread on me or others). With Ebola it may even go into further restrictions with disease to PREVENT further contamination which is only watching the safety of all citizens and visitors in this country or hopefully this will be carried out in Africa and anywhere else at this point.
  • Avoid funeral or burial rituals that require handling the body of someone who has died from Ebola.
  • Avoid contact with bats and nonhuman primates or blood, fluids, and raw meat prepared from these animals.
  • Avoid hospitals in West Africa where Ebola patients are being treated, if .not needed. The U.S. embassy or consulate is often able to provide advice on facilities.

Lets look at what has happened so far. Thomas Eric Duncan contracted the virus while in West Africa. He then flew on a commercial flight to visit family in the States in late September. On the 26th, he went to Texas Presbyterian Health Hospital with a fever and was sent home with Tylenol and antibiotics. Two days later, Duncan went back to the hospital, and on the 29th he was confirmed to be the first person diagnosed with Ebola on U.S. soil. He died on October 8th. He is one of three confirmed Ebola cases to be diagnosed in the U.S. The other two are nurses who were treating Duncan at the hospital. The first was Nina Pham, who is reportedly in “good condition.” The second, Amber Vinson, took a commercial airline flight back from Cleveland the day before developing a severe fever. While we don’t know if she was contagious on the flight, the CDC says she had a low-grade fever before boarding and it is in the processes of reaching out to other passengers on the flight.   Check out part 2 tomorrow!


“Honey or Cola May Disrupt Heart” 

“TUESDAY, June 25, 2013 (MedPage Today) — A detailed history of patients with arrhythmia or syncope might need to decrease their cola intake or the origin of the honey they consume, two case studies suggest.” 

Chris Kaiser, Cardiology Editor, MedPage Today

What is SYNCOPE?

Syncope, also known as fainting, is a sudden, temporary loss of consciousness.


Syncope is caused by a temporary decrease in the flow of blood to the brain. A large number of situations or conditions can cause this decrease in blood flow. They can include straining for a prolonged period of time, common mild illnesses like as simple as the cold or flu or sinusitis, standing up too quickly allowing the blood to drop from the brain in decreasing blood supply to that area, emotionally stressed, heart disease, standing rigidly for a long time, arrhythmias (abnormal heart beats = irregular heartbeats), pain, fright, drugs and alcohol.

Certain heart conditions can cause syncope. They include heart attacks, certain arrhythmia (like atrial fibrillation), hypertropic cardiomyopathy (A disease that involves thickening of the heart muscle which is greatest in size on the L side of the heart since that side of the heart has to pump blood to the feet up to the head and back to the right side of the heart; the Rt. side of the heart only pumps blood from the Rt side of the heart to lungs and back to the L side of the heart with oxygenated blood.) Other conditions causing syncope can be disorders of the heart valves, or heart blocks (a problem with the heart’s electrical system blocked due to the conduction system not going completely from the top to the bottom of the heart which can be slight (1st degree heart block to moderate=2 types of 2nd degree heart block to completely being 3rd degree heart block).


Like any other condition in determining the cause we have to use diagnostic tools through certain tests to figure out the actual etiology of the syncope or any symptoms you’re experiencing.

The doctor will start with a thorough physical exam and review of your medical history with significant changes from your last physical or visit with the doctor. The doctor may recommend certain diagnostic tests to determine the cause of your fainting episodes. These tests could include: X-rays, use of a Holter monitor (a device that you wear during the day that records the electrical activity over a period of time), or other diagnostic or imaging testing procedures.

Our doctor might recommend a “tilt-table test”. This test involves a special table that tilts upright. Sometimes, medications are given during the test to help with the diagnosis. Your doctor may order a Stress Test where you walk to run on a treadmill with or without IV contrast to determine if this is possible cardiac situation and if it is than the doctor would further order other cardiac testing from Echocardiogram (soundwaves checking the heart) to microsurgery possibly like an angiogram (cardiac cath)=microsurgery if the situation was a blockage in an artery that needed to be declogged than a angioplasty would be performed if you were a candidate for this procedure, which a cardiologist would decide.


If this was to prevent cardiac conditions from occurring to stop the syncope from occurring live a life with a healthy diet, balancing exercise and rest and if overweight start a program with both diet and exercise involved. To do it right first go to a cardiologist, if obese or overweight, to do it safe and correctly.

Already with some type of cardiac problem than be compliant in what your cardiologist provides you in your individual plan of care in treating this condition to prevent it worsening or causing other problems as well.


Treatment depends on the cause of the fainting spells. If the problems are related to medications the doctor may have to change the dosage or the type of medication. Medications are generally not required to treat syncope, but they might be required to treat the cause of syncope.

Most fainting spells are not dangerous. Individuals usually regain consciousness on their own in a few minutes.