Archive | April 2019


“Stomach cancer begins when cancer cells form in the inner lining of your stomach. These cells can grow into a tumor. Also called gastric cancer, the disease usually grows slowly over many years.”

National Cancer Institute

Stomach Cancer-what it is, types, and risk factors!

What is Stomach cancer (also called gastric cancer):

This cancer can develop in any part of the stomach, and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs. It may grow along the stomach wall into the esophagus or small intestine.

The cancer may also extend through the stomach wall and spread to nearby lymph nodes and organs, such as the liver, pancreas and colon. It may spread to distant organs, such as the lungs, the lymph nodes above the collarbone and to a woman’s ovaries.

Different types of stomach cancer include:

  • Adenocarcinomas develop within the cells of the innermost lining of the stomach. The majority of stomach cancers are classified as adenocarcinomas.
  • Lymphoma is a cancer of the immune system tissue that may start anywhere there are lymph tissues, including the stomach. Lymphomas in the stomach are rather rare and only account for about 4 percent of all stomach cancers.
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors, or GISTs, are a rare type of stomach cancer that starts in a special cell found in the lining of the stomach called interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). Under a microscope, GIST cells look similar to muscle or nerve cells. These tumors may develop throughout the digestive tract, but about 60 to 70 percent occur in the stomach.
  • Carcinoid tumors typically start in the hormone producing cells of the stomach. These tumors usually do not spread to different organs and account for only about 3 percent of stomach cancer incidence.



  • Age: Stomach cancer is found most often in people over age 55.
  • Gender: The disease affects men twice as often as women.
  • Race: Stomach cancer is more common in African Americans than in Caucasians.
  • Region: This type of cancer is more common in some parts of the world, such as Japan, Korea, parts of Eastern Europe and Latin America. People in these areas eat many foods that are preserved by drying, smoking, salting or pickling.


  • Obesity: Obesity has been linked to an increased risk of stomach cancer


Certain gene mutations and some inherited conditions are considered stomach cancer risk factors. They include:

  • BRCA1 & BRCA2: Inherited mutations on the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are often associated with higher risks for breast cancer. Individuals who have inherited these genetic mutations are also at an increased risk for stomach cancer
  • E-cadherin/CDH1: Though rare, people who inherit this genetic mutation have a 70 to 80 percent chance of developing stomach cancer in their lifetime. Also, women with this genetic defect have an increased risk of breast cancer.
  • Lynch syndrome: This condition may also be referred to as hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), a genetic condition that runs in families. More commonly, this condition is associated with an increased risk for colon cancer. HNPCC also predisposes people to stomach cancers.
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): This syndrome causes polyps in the colon, stomach and intestines. Often caused by mutations of the gene APC, this syndrome greatly increases a person’s risk of colorectal cancer and may play a small role in increasing a person’s stomach cancer risk.


  • Smoking: There is evidence linking cigarette smoking to many types of cancer, including stomach cancer. Smokers have been found to be at greater risk of developing cancer than non-smokers.
  • Diet: Scientists believe that eating foods preserved in these ways may play a role in the development of stomach cancer. On the other hand, fresh foods (especially fresh fruits and vegetables and properly frozen or refrigerated fresh foods) may protect against this disease.
  • Working in the coal, metal or rubber industries: Chemicals that are released in these environments have been linked to the development of stomach cancer.


  • H. pylori infection: Doctors have found that a long-term H. pylori infection may lead to inflammation and pre-cancerous changes to the stomach lining. In fact, stomach cancer patients typically have a higher incidence of H. pylori infections than people who do not have stomach cancer.
  • Pernicious anemia: Some people with pernicious anemia may have gastric polyps, which can increase the risk of stomach cancer.
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection: According to the American Cancer Society, Epstein-Barr virus is found in the cancer cells of about 5% to 10% of people with stomach cancer.




““In general the term ‘enlarged heart’ refers to heart failure;  this is a common condition that’s more likely to occur in older patients. It’s most strongly related to a history of high blood pressure or a previous heart attack.”

Clyde Yancy, M.D., past president of the American Heart Association and chief of the Division of Cardiology and the Magerstadt Professor of Medicine at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago.


“Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a contagious and sometimes fatal respiratory illness. SARS first appeared in China in November 2002. Within a few months, SARS spread worldwide, carried by unsuspecting travelers.

SARS showed how quickly infection can spread in a highly mobile and interconnected world. On the other hand, concerted international cooperation allowed health experts to quickly contain the spread of the disease. There has been no known transmission of SARS anywhere in the world since 2004.”



“Tens of thousands of sports and recreation-related eye injuries occur each year. The good news is that 90 percent of serious eye injuries are preventable through use of appropriate protective eyewear. The risk of eye injury can vary depending on the activity. Make sure the level of eye protection you or others in your family use is appropriate for the type of activity. Regular eyeglasses do not offer proper eye protection.”

American Academy of Ophthalmology

Sports eye safety month.

More than 25,000 people seek treatment for sports-related eye injuries each year. The good news is that almost all of these injuries can be prevented. Whatever your game, whatever your age, you need to protect your eyes!

Take the following steps to avoid sports eye injuries:

  • Wear proper safety goggles (lensed polycarbonate protectors) for racquet sports or basketball. In order to be assured that your eyes are protected, it is important that any eye guard or sports protective eyewear are labeled as ASTM F803 approved. This eyewear is performance tested to give you the highest levels of protection.
  • Use batting helmets with polycarbonate face shields for youth baseball.
  • Use helmets and face shields approved by the U.S. Amateur Hockey Association when playing hockey.
  • Know that regular glasses don’t provide enough protection
This publication is copyrighted. This sheet may be reproduced—un altered in hard print (photocopied) for educational purposes only. The Prevent Blindness name, logo, telephone number and copyright information may not be omitted. Electronic reproduction, other reprint, excerption or use is not permitted without written consent. Because of the time-sensitive nature of the information contained in this publication, contact Prevent Blindness for updates.MK09 04/15 © 2015 Prevent Blindness® All rights reserved.
Each year, more than 40,000 people are treated for eye injuries related to sports activities. Using the right kind of eye protection while playing sports can help prevent serious eye injuries and even blindness.For sports use, polycarbonate lenses must be used with protectors that meet or exceed the requirements of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Each sport has a specific ASTM code, so look for the ASTM label on the product before making a purchase.
Baseball Type of eye protection:
• Faceguard (attached to helmet) made of polycarbonate material
• Sports eyeguards
Eye injuries prevented:• Scratches on the cornea• Inflamed iris• Blood spilling into the eye’s anterior chamber• Traumatic cataract• Swollen retina
Basketball Type of eye protection:• Sports eyeguards
Eye injuries prevented:• Fracture of the eye socket• Scratches on the cornea• Inflamed iris• Blood spilling into the eye’s anterior chamber
• Swollen retina

Soccer Recommended protection:

  • Sports eyeguards

Injuries prevented:

  • Inflamed iris
  • Blood spilling into the eye’s anterior chamber
  • Swollen retina

Football Recommended protection:

  • Polycarbonate shield attached to a faceguard
  • Sports eyeguards

Injuries prevented:

  • Scratches on the cornea
  • Inflamed iris
  • Blood spilling into the eye’s anterior chamber
  • Swollen retina


Recommended protection:

  • Wire or polycarbonate mask
  • Sports eyeguards

Injuries prevented:

  • Scratches on the cornea
  • Inflamed iris
  • Blood spilling into the eye’s anterior chamber
  • Traumatic cataract
  • Swollen retina


“Bees, wasps, and hornets can quickly take the fun out of summer activities, especially if an allergy makes an insect encounter a potentially life-threatening event. It’s best to “bee” prepared for whatever buzzes your way.”

Insect allergy expert David B.K. Golden, MD,Guest on (when the doctor bring the knowledge to you).


What do you do if you or your child or family is stung?

One get into a safe area and away from a hive or outside where more stinging insects can come and attack you.

Two look at the area and if you see the stinger DO NOT SQUEEZE IT OUT since you will squeeze out more venom from the stinger but what you can do is get a tweezer and pull it our or if not available you can attempt to scratch it out with a nail (like if you are out camping and have no tweezers for example).

Three than wash the area out with soap and apply ice if the area is in pain to give the numbing affect to the area and decrease the pain with decreasing the venom from spreading.

If the area is itching apply oatmeal or a antihistamine cream to the area to decrease the itching or maybe even a cool bath.

Most stings will cause a small red bump to the area that got stung.  For most part they can be treated at home depending on the area that was stung (Foot vs EYE for example).  It would also include the reaction the individual has (LOCAL vs SYSTEMIC or even ANAPHYLACTIC=An allergic reaction that needs to be treated immediately or fatal, usually with epinephrine injection.).

Stung in the eye it will get swollen and shut and immediate evaluation from a MD is needed to make sure there is no other injury to the eye or that they didn’t even actually get stung in the eye itself.

If you show hives with DIFFICULTY BREATHING or DIFFICULTY SWALLOWING you NEED TO CALL 911 IMMEDIATELY since this is indicating a ANAPHYLACTIC REACTION most likely that needs treatment ASAP!!  Since this can lead to shock or unconsciousness.

If you have reason to think you may be seriously allergic to bee venom, you should carry an Epipen (further discussed below).

How to determine if your even allergic to stings:

The diagnosis is made by a specialist, an allergist, by interviewing the patient and doing special allergy tests. If someone has had what is described as a systemic reaction, they should have venom skin tests done by an allergist to identify which venoms they are allergic to. The allergist can then recommend, based on the kind of reaction that the patient had, what kind of prevention would be the best idea for that person. For some people, it might be enough to be careful and carry an EpiPen, but for most people with insect skin allergy the best recommendation is to be immunized with venom treatment, because the allergy shots are highly effective to prevent dangerous reactions.  This would all be done after any serious reactions were first taken care of in the ER if you had to call 911.

If you have reason to think you may be seriously allergic to bee venom, you should carry an Epipen (further discussed below).  What it this exactly?  An EpiPen is one kind of injector to deliver epinephrine, also known as adrenaline. It is a spring-loaded injector that makes it easy for somebody to give themselves an emergency injection that can be life-saving when there’s a severe allergic reaction. An EpiPen is useful for someone to carry if they have had a severe allergic reaction in the past. This is true for insect sting allergy and for some food allergies or other causes of anaphylaxis.

Let me point out that there is no other medicine that can counteract a severe allergic reaction, but sometimes even the EpiPen isn’t enough; so when someone needs to use an EpiPen they should call 911, because they may need intravenous fluids or oxygen or other medicines.  BE SAFE RATHER THAN SORRY!

So let us remember it is coming onto summer but their BACK AGAIN!

References For Part I and Part II BE ALERT TO SPRING INSECT STINGERS INCLUDING KNOWING WHAT TO DO IF STUNG! and today’s topic listed above:

1-Read more: Published On: May 30 2014 09:38:22 AM EDT

3-http// bees-sting and which-don’t.html with Phil Chandler of Biobees.

4-Wikipedia-2013 published Bees Bee and Wasp Sting 12/11/2013





“Bumble bees, hornets, yellow jackets, and wasps are able to sting multiple times, since their stingers are smooth and can be easily withdrawn from the victim’s skin.” 12/11/2013 Bee and Wasp Sting


  Honey Bees

Bumble Bees – Above

Solitary Bees (Above)

2.)Types of Bees

 A.) Honeybees

Honey bees have been around longer than humans; there is fossil evidence from 150 million years ago! Honeybees are highly social insects. Honeybees can contain up to 60,000 bees in its colony at its peak.  Honeybees can fly up to 15 miles an hour.  Worker bees are sexually undeveloped females. They build hives, forage for pollen and nectar for food and circulate air within the hive by beating their wings, among other tasks. The queen’s main job is to lay eggs, though she also directs activity within the hive. Male bees are called drones. In winter months when the hive needs to conserve resources, drones are expelled. Honeybees can only sting once, causing the

bee to die, as the stinger and the venom sack get stuck in the victim’s flesh after use.

Many people are afraid of bees because they think they will be stung by them, but bees are far more interested in going about their business foraging for pollen and nectar than they are in ‘stinging’ human beings. It actually takes a lot to provoke a bee to sting you – and many of our UK bees don’t sting at all.

Honeybee (Apis mellifera)


will sting if defending their honey stores or their queen, or if they think you are threatening their life by standing or sitting on them.

Honeybees have a barb at the end of their sting which remains under your skin after they have stung.   When a honey bee stings a person, it cannot pull the barbed stinger back out. It leaves behind not only the stinger, but also part of its abdomen and digestive tract, plus muscles and nerves. Honey bees, including killer bees, have barbed stingers that tear off when they try to fly away after stinging, so these bees die after the sting and thus can sting only one time. In this case the stinger and venom sac typically remain embedded in the skin of the victim.This massive abdominal rupture kills the honey bee. Honey bees are the one of the few species of bees to die after stinging.  They usually die right  after they have stung.

It is worth noting that honeybees have a somewhat variable temperament, from extremely docile to quite tetchy. This is down to genetics: certain crosses can be hard to handle, even by experienced beekeepers. The good news is that honeybees almost never sting anyone who is not close to their nest/hive, so don’t worry about being stung whilst gardening or walking through a field.

You are less likely to be stung when honeybees are swarming than at any other time.

Male honeybees have no sting

If you have reason to think you may be allergic to bee venom, you should carry an Epipen (A PREPARED EPINEPHRINE DOSE WITH A NEEDLE to prevent anaphylactic reaction.)

B.) Bumblebees

Like their relatives the honey bees, bumblebees feed on nectar, using the long hairy tongue (proboscis) to lap up the liquid; the proboscis is folded under the head for flight. Bumblebees gather pollen to feed their young

They will only sting if their nest is threatened or if you squeeze them, sit on them or stand on them. They are not naturally aggressive and it takes a lot to provoke them. If they feel threatened by you they will ‘tell’ you. They do this by raising one of their middle legs in the air. When you move away they will put their leg back down again – but if you go closer (and if they are unhappy about this) they will lift another leg in the air. If you go closer still – they will lift two legs up vertically in the air or turn on their back and show you their sting! This is called ‘posturing’ but very rarely leads to them actually stinging you.  If bumblebees DO ever sting, their sting has no barb like the honeybee, so they will not die afterwards 🙂

Male bumblebees do not have a sting.  You can identify the males of some species quite easily by their pale yellow facial hair and little yellow moustaches. Also, male bumblebees are in less hurry than the females when foraging and have thin hairy legs (females have a wide shiny, smooth top corbicula on their back legs and are often carrying pollen)

C.) Solitary bees

There are over 230 species of solitary bee in the UK and it is VERY rare for anyone to be stung by one of these bees. As solitary bees have no honey stores to protect, there is no reason for nature to have provided them with a good defence weapon like the honeybee. The females are equipped with tiny stings but rarely, if ever, do they use them. You would have to be squashing them to provoke them to sting – and even then, the sting is so insignificant that it cannot pierce human skin.

There are just one or two exceptions. Although the effect is not as severe as a honeybee sting, our tiniest species of ground nesting solitary bee, Lasioglossum and Halictus, both have fully functioning stings capable of penetrating human skin.

None of the male solitary bees have stingers.