Archive | April 2019


“Stomach cancer begins when cancer cells form in the inner lining of your stomach. These cells can grow into a tumor. Also called gastric cancer, the disease usually grows slowly over many years.”

National Cancer Institute

Stomach Cancer-what it is, types, and risk factors!

What is Stomach cancer (also called gastric cancer):

This cancer can develop in any part of the stomach, and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs. It may grow along the stomach wall into the esophagus or small intestine.

The cancer may also extend through the stomach wall and spread to nearby lymph nodes and organs, such as the liver, pancreas and colon. It may spread to distant organs, such as the lungs, the lymph nodes above the collarbone and to a woman’s ovaries.

Different types of stomach cancer include:

  • Adenocarcinomas develop within the cells of the innermost lining of the stomach. The majority of stomach cancers are classified as adenocarcinomas.
  • Lymphoma is a cancer of the immune system tissue that may start anywhere there are lymph tissues, including the stomach. Lymphomas in the stomach are rather rare and only account for about 4 percent of all stomach cancers.
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors, or GISTs, are a rare type of stomach cancer that starts in a special cell found in the lining of the stomach called interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). Under a microscope, GIST cells look similar to muscle or nerve cells. These tumors may develop throughout the digestive tract, but about 60 to 70 percent occur in the stomach.
  • Carcinoid tumors typically start in the hormone producing cells of the stomach. These tumors usually do not spread to different organs and account for only about 3 percent of stomach cancer incidence.



  • Age: Stomach cancer is found most often in people over age 55.
  • Gender: The disease affects men twice as often as women.
  • Race: Stomach cancer is more common in African Americans than in Caucasians.
  • Region: This type of cancer is more common in some parts of the world, such as Japan, Korea, parts of Eastern Europe and Latin America. People in these areas eat many foods that are preserved by drying, smoking, salting or pickling.


  • Obesity: Obesity has been linked to an increased risk of stomach cancer


Certain gene mutations and some inherited conditions are considered stomach cancer risk factors. They include:

  • BRCA1 & BRCA2: Inherited mutations on the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are often associated with higher risks for breast cancer. Individuals who have inherited these genetic mutations are also at an increased risk for stomach cancer
  • E-cadherin/CDH1: Though rare, people who inherit this genetic mutation have a 70 to 80 percent chance of developing stomach cancer in their lifetime. Also, women with this genetic defect have an increased risk of breast cancer.
  • Lynch syndrome: This condition may also be referred to as hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), a genetic condition that runs in families. More commonly, this condition is associated with an increased risk for colon cancer. HNPCC also predisposes people to stomach cancers.
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): This syndrome causes polyps in the colon, stomach and intestines. Often caused by mutations of the gene APC, this syndrome greatly increases a person’s risk of colorectal cancer and may play a small role in increasing a person’s stomach cancer risk.


  • Smoking: There is evidence linking cigarette smoking to many types of cancer, including stomach cancer. Smokers have been found to be at greater risk of developing cancer than non-smokers.
  • Diet: Scientists believe that eating foods preserved in these ways may play a role in the development of stomach cancer. On the other hand, fresh foods (especially fresh fruits and vegetables and properly frozen or refrigerated fresh foods) may protect against this disease.
  • Working in the coal, metal or rubber industries: Chemicals that are released in these environments have been linked to the development of stomach cancer.


  • H. pylori infection: Doctors have found that a long-term H. pylori infection may lead to inflammation and pre-cancerous changes to the stomach lining. In fact, stomach cancer patients typically have a higher incidence of H. pylori infections than people who do not have stomach cancer.
  • Pernicious anemia: Some people with pernicious anemia may have gastric polyps, which can increase the risk of stomach cancer.
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection: According to the American Cancer Society, Epstein-Barr virus is found in the cancer cells of about 5% to 10% of people with stomach cancer.




““In general the term ‘enlarged heart’ refers to heart failure;  this is a common condition that’s more likely to occur in older patients. It’s most strongly related to a history of high blood pressure or a previous heart attack.”

Clyde Yancy, M.D., past president of the American Heart Association and chief of the Division of Cardiology and the Magerstadt Professor of Medicine at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago.

What is an enlarged heart?

Left Ventricle Enlarged

  Normal Heart Size & Lt.Ventricle

Heart Enlarged

Think of a healthy heart like a firm biceps muscle. An enlarged heart is just the opposite.

When your heart is enlarged, it’s like a soft biceps — it’s weak and out of shape. What happens is the heart muscle enlarges because the heart is trying so hard to do its function, PUMP, but it gets too difficult and the muscle of the heart enlarges/thickens causing the organ not to work properly.  So this causes back up with circulatory blood, think like a plumber–your pipes are backing up.  So what does this ends up causing?  Your body starts to retain fluid, your lungs get congested with fluid and your heart begins to beat irregularly.  If the heart is effected in working so will the lungs in time and visa versa.   Think like the car if the engine (the heart) is effected working properly the transmission (the lungs) will be also in time.

“In general the term ‘enlarged heart’ refers to heart failure,” said Clyde Yancy, M.D., past president of the American Heart Association and chief of the Division of Cardiology and the Magerstadt Professor of Medicine at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago. “This is a common condition that’s more likely to occur in older patients. It’s most strongly related to a history of high blood pressure or a previous heart attack.”

About one in five adults over age 40 is affected, with African-Americans facing a greater risk due to the dieting and heridity.

“There are other reasons for an enlarged heart or heart muscle disorders (like cardiomyopathies, which are diseases of the heart muscle) and not everyone with heart failure has an enlarged heart,” Dr. Yancy said. “But when we speak of an enlarged heart we are typically referring to heart failure.”

What to Look For
Shortness of breath, fluid retention (edema) and having a harder time exercising are among the key symptoms of an enlarged heart or heart failure. Irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) — potentially even serious irregular heart rhythms and strokes — are likely as well, Dr. Yancy said.

The symptoms of an enlarged heart can affect the quality and length of your life, Dr. Yancy said.

“This is why treatment is so important and why we are so encouraged that good treatments are available today,” he said.

How to Prevent and Treat It
“Despite all of the great advances in treatment, the best treatment is to never have an enlarged heart,” Dr. Yancy said. “Prevention should be the true thrust. The simple stuff works — managing your weight, getting plenty of physical activity, controlling your diet, reducing your cholesterol and avoiding diabetes.”

But there’s good news for those who have been diagnosed with an enlarged heart.

“Whereas this condition was a dreadful diagnosis 20–25 years ago and resulted in death shortly afterward, the outlook for those with heart failure is now so much better,” Dr. Yancy said. “More and more patients are living longer, healthier lives with heart failure due to breakthrough medical and device treatments.”

If you or a loved one has heart failure, seek a care provider who has experience treating enlarged hearts.

“This condition is no longer about ‘failure,’” Dr. Yancy said. “On the correct drugs and with support from the correct devices, you can be successful in overcoming heart failure.” Dr. Yancy said there’s a nationwide “small army” of expert nurses focusing on heart failure.

”When a heart failure nurse is involved, you can expect to get better — a lot better,” he said.

Drugs and devices can strengthen the heart, and pacemakers and implantable defibrillators (ICDs) also offer hope. Surgery may be another option for patients who also have heart vessel disease and /or heart valve disease. “For those with very advanced disease, we now have very effective mechanical heart devices and we do heart transplantation very well,” he said.

And the future may hold more promise for enlarged hearts, Dr.  Yancy said.

“We expect to have cell-based therapies that will help us repair damaged hearts; easier surgeries that will halt the progression of heart disease and even more insight into preventing heart disease,” he said.




“Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a contagious and sometimes fatal respiratory illness. SARS first appeared in China in November 2002. Within a few months, SARS spread worldwide, carried by unsuspecting travelers.

SARS showed how quickly infection can spread in a highly mobile and interconnected world. On the other hand, concerted international cooperation allowed health experts to quickly contain the spread of the disease. There has been no known transmission of SARS anywhere in the world since 2004.”



“Tens of thousands of sports and recreation-related eye injuries occur each year. The good news is that 90 percent of serious eye injuries are preventable through use of appropriate protective eyewear. The risk of eye injury can vary depending on the activity. Make sure the level of eye protection you or others in your family use is appropriate for the type of activity. Regular eyeglasses do not offer proper eye protection.”

American Academy of Ophthalmology

Sports eye safety month.

More than 25,000 people seek treatment for sports-related eye injuries each year. The good news is that almost all of these injuries can be prevented. Whatever your game, whatever your age, you need to protect your eyes!

Take the following steps to avoid sports eye injuries:

  • Wear proper safety goggles (lensed polycarbonate protectors) for racquet sports or basketball. In order to be assured that your eyes are protected, it is important that any eye guard or sports protective eyewear are labeled as ASTM F803 approved. This eyewear is performance tested to give you the highest levels of protection.
  • Use batting helmets with polycarbonate face shields for youth baseball.
  • Use helmets and face shields approved by the U.S. Amateur Hockey Association when playing hockey.
  • Know that regular glasses don’t provide enough protection
This publication is copyrighted. This sheet may be reproduced—un altered in hard print (photocopied) for educational purposes only. The Prevent Blindness name, logo, telephone number and copyright information may not be omitted. Electronic reproduction, other reprint, excerption or use is not permitted without written consent. Because of the time-sensitive nature of the information contained in this publication, contact Prevent Blindness for updates.MK09 04/15 © 2015 Prevent Blindness® All rights reserved.
Each year, more than 40,000 people are treated for eye injuries related to sports activities. Using the right kind of eye protection while playing sports can help prevent serious eye injuries and even blindness.For sports use, polycarbonate lenses must be used with protectors that meet or exceed the requirements of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Each sport has a specific ASTM code, so look for the ASTM label on the product before making a purchase.
Baseball Type of eye protection:
• Faceguard (attached to helmet) made of polycarbonate material
• Sports eyeguards
Eye injuries prevented:• Scratches on the cornea• Inflamed iris• Blood spilling into the eye’s anterior chamber• Traumatic cataract• Swollen retina
Basketball Type of eye protection:• Sports eyeguards
Eye injuries prevented:• Fracture of the eye socket• Scratches on the cornea• Inflamed iris• Blood spilling into the eye’s anterior chamber
• Swollen retina

Soccer Recommended protection:

  • Sports eyeguards

Injuries prevented:

  • Inflamed iris
  • Blood spilling into the eye’s anterior chamber
  • Swollen retina

Football Recommended protection:

  • Polycarbonate shield attached to a faceguard
  • Sports eyeguards

Injuries prevented:

  • Scratches on the cornea
  • Inflamed iris
  • Blood spilling into the eye’s anterior chamber
  • Swollen retina


Recommended protection:

  • Wire or polycarbonate mask
  • Sports eyeguards

Injuries prevented:

  • Scratches on the cornea
  • Inflamed iris
  • Blood spilling into the eye’s anterior chamber
  • Traumatic cataract
  • Swollen retina


“Bees, wasps, and hornets can quickly take the fun out of summer activities, especially if an allergy makes an insect encounter a potentially life-threatening event. It’s best to “bee” prepared for whatever buzzes your way.”

Insect allergy expert David B.K. Golden, MD,Guest on (when the doctor bring the knowledge to you).


What do you do if you or your child or family is stung?

One get into a safe area and away from a hive or outside where more stinging insects can come and attack you.

Two look at the area and if you see the stinger DO NOT SQUEEZE IT OUT since you will squeeze out more venom from the stinger but what you can do is get a tweezer and pull it our or if not available you can attempt to scratch it out with a nail (like if you are out camping and have no tweezers for example).

Three than wash the area out with soap and apply ice if the area is in pain to give the numbing affect to the area and decrease the pain with decreasing the venom from spreading.

If the area is itching apply oatmeal or a antihistamine cream to the area to decrease the itching or maybe even a cool bath.

Most stings will cause a small red bump to the area that got stung.  For most part they can be treated at home depending on the area that was stung (Foot vs EYE for example).  It would also include the reaction the individual has (LOCAL vs SYSTEMIC or even ANAPHYLACTIC=An allergic reaction that needs to be treated immediately or fatal, usually with epinephrine injection.).

Stung in the eye it will get swollen and shut and immediate evaluation from a MD is needed to make sure there is no other injury to the eye or that they didn’t even actually get stung in the eye itself.

If you show hives with DIFFICULTY BREATHING or DIFFICULTY SWALLOWING you NEED TO CALL 911 IMMEDIATELY since this is indicating a ANAPHYLACTIC REACTION most likely that needs treatment ASAP!!  Since this can lead to shock or unconsciousness.

If you have reason to think you may be seriously allergic to bee venom, you should carry an Epipen (further discussed below).

How to determine if your even allergic to stings:

The diagnosis is made by a specialist, an allergist, by interviewing the patient and doing special allergy tests. If someone has had what is described as a systemic reaction, they should have venom skin tests done by an allergist to identify which venoms they are allergic to. The allergist can then recommend, based on the kind of reaction that the patient had, what kind of prevention would be the best idea for that person. For some people, it might be enough to be careful and carry an EpiPen, but for most people with insect skin allergy the best recommendation is to be immunized with venom treatment, because the allergy shots are highly effective to prevent dangerous reactions.  This would all be done after any serious reactions were first taken care of in the ER if you had to call 911.

If you have reason to think you may be seriously allergic to bee venom, you should carry an Epipen (further discussed below).  What it this exactly?  An EpiPen is one kind of injector to deliver epinephrine, also known as adrenaline. It is a spring-loaded injector that makes it easy for somebody to give themselves an emergency injection that can be life-saving when there’s a severe allergic reaction. An EpiPen is useful for someone to carry if they have had a severe allergic reaction in the past. This is true for insect sting allergy and for some food allergies or other causes of anaphylaxis.

Let me point out that there is no other medicine that can counteract a severe allergic reaction, but sometimes even the EpiPen isn’t enough; so when someone needs to use an EpiPen they should call 911, because they may need intravenous fluids or oxygen or other medicines.  BE SAFE RATHER THAN SORRY!

So let us remember it is coming onto summer but their BACK AGAIN!

References For Part I and Part II BE ALERT TO SPRING INSECT STINGERS INCLUDING KNOWING WHAT TO DO IF STUNG! and today’s topic listed above:

1-Read more: Published On: May 30 2014 09:38:22 AM EDT

3-http// bees-sting and which-don’t.html with Phil Chandler of Biobees.

4-Wikipedia-2013 published Bees Bee and Wasp Sting 12/11/2013





“Bumble bees, hornets, yellow jackets, and wasps are able to sting multiple times, since their stingers are smooth and can be easily withdrawn from the victim’s skin.” 12/11/2013 Bee and Wasp Sting