Archive | January 2017

QUOTE FOR TUESDAY:

“From large epidemiological studies, it has been demonstrated that both vascular and Alzheimer’s dementia are more common in patients with type 2 diabetes”=Brain Diabetes

American Diabetes Association

A Healthy Heart Expands Your Life by Far.

The heart is like the engine to a car but for us it’s the “pump” for the human body; without the engine the car won’t run and without the pump we won’t live.  The normal size of the heart is about the size of your fist, maybe a little bigger.  It pumps blood continuously through your entire circulatory system.  The heart consists of four chambers, 2 on the right and 2 on the left.  The right side only pumps high carbon dioxide levels of blood, after all the oxygen was used by the tissues and returns to the heart in the right upper chamber and leaves to the lung from the right lower chamber.  From the lungs it than goes to the left side of the heart now, which is a very short distance as opposed to where the left side pumps the blood.  The L side of the heart pumps blood to the feet, brain and all tissues in between with high oxygen levels of blood.   This is why the L side of the heart does more work than the R side since the blood leaving the L side has a longer distance in distributing oxygen.  The heart pumps the blood with high oxygen blood levels to reach all your tissues and cells, going to the feet, brain, and to all other tissues in between returning home again to the right side of the heart (upper chamber) to get sent to the lungs again for more oxygen.  This is why the muscle on the L side of the heart is larger than the right, it works harder.  Every time your heart beats (the sound we call lub dub) the organ is sending out a cardiac output of blood either to the lungs for more oxygen or to the body tissues through the aorta to give oxygenated blood to your tissues and cells.  This is the mechanics of how the heart works in our body.

Let’s see what can occur if the heart doesn’t function properly.  If your heart is not pumping out a sufficient amount in your cardiac output to either the lungs (from rt. Side) or to the tissues (from the lt. side) than it tries to work harder where it does ok at first but over time weakens.  As this weak heart struggles to pump blood the muscle fibers of the heart stretch.  Over time, this stretching leaves the heart with larger, weaker chambers.  The heart enlarges (cardiomegaly).   If this continues to go on this could go into R or L sided heart failure.  When this happens, blood that should be pumped out of the heart backs up in the lungs (L sided failure) or in the tissues (R sided failure).  The side the failure is on doesn’t allow proper filling of the chambers on that side and back up happens; so if on the L the fluids back up in the lungs or the R the fluids first back up in the veins which can expand to hold extra blood but at some point dump the extra fluids in your tissues (This is edema in feet first due to gravity).   This is all due to overloading of the blood not filling up in the chambers of the heart to make a good cardiac output of blood and in time the fluid backs up (bad pumping=backup of blood=fluid overload in the lungs (pulmonary congestion) to fluid staying in the skin (first the lower extremities due to gravity=feet which we call edema working its way up the legs.).  This condition in time with no treatment will go into congestive heart failure (CHF) to the other side of the heart if not controlled.  CHF can range from mild to severe.   There is 670,000 cases are diagnosed with this every year and is the leading cause of hospitalization in people over 65 y/o.  Causes of CHF are: heart attack, CAD (coronary artery disease), cardiomyopathy, conditions that overwork the heart like high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity (These diseases can be completely preventable or at least well controlled).

There is many of us in this world with knowing how our activity/exercise, eating, and habits could be better for health but do little action if any on our own to change it, which is a large part for certain diseases being so high in America (diabetes, stroke, cardiac diseases=high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis to CHF and more).  If people were more healthier and more active regarding these diseases alone it would decrease in population creating a positive impact on how our health system with insurance presently (a disaster) with our economy for many could get better.  A healthy heart can pump to all parts of the body in a few seconds which is good cardiac output from the organ but when it gets hard for the heart to keep up with its regular routine it first compensates to eventually it decompensates causing ischemia (lack of oxygen to the heart tissue).  It’s like any tissue in the body, lack of oxygen=lack of nutrients to the body tissue=STARVATION and with lack of oxygen will come PAIN eventually to death if not treated.  Take the heart, if it isn’t getting enough oxygen it can go into angina.  That is reversible since it is heart pain due to not enough oxygen to the heart tissue=no damage but if left untreated what will occur is a heart attack=myocardial infarction (MI) and is permanent damage because scarring to the heart tissue takes place.

Let’s understand what the heart can develop over time with an unhealthy heart due to bad health habits.  If you are eating too much for too long foods high in sodium your vessels will narrow in size.  By allowing this you increase the pressure in the vessels that increases your blood pressure called hypertension.  If you are also inactive you are at risk of obesity which puts stress on the heart and in time causing high B/P.  Constantly be in a high B/P and this could cause the vessel to rupture (at the heart=possible heart attack, at the brain=possible stroke, also called CVA with both on high occurrences in our population of the US.).   With bad habits (especially poor diet, inactive, and smoking) you can cause over time atherosclerosis=a blockage in the artery with the resolution surgery (from a cardiac catheterization up your groin or having difficulty in the arm to the heart where an angiogram to an angioplasty with possibly a stent is performed or if the blockage to blockages is so bad a CABG=coronary artery bypass=a 6hr plus operation where diversion of a vein from your leg (donor graft site) around the blockage is done.  Smoking can lead to this but it also can cause your vessels to become brittle=arteriosclerosis.  Healthy Habits would impact a positive result for all people who have had this diagnosis before but most important be a great PREVENTATIVE measure for people not diagnosed with cardiac disease.

There are 4 things you have no control over heredity, age, sex, and race but healthy habits are sure to benefit you by keeping the odds down of you inheriting, help your age factor, and race a lot can be associated with eating cultural habits.

If you make the decision to live a life that’s healthy for your heart through proper eating, doing healthy habits and doing some exercise or activity with balancing rest in your busy schedule and would like direction or want to expand your diet/exercise/healthy habits then you came to the right blog to start in the right direction.  You make all the choices in your life at 21 y/o or older.  Wouldn’t you want less heart disease or obesity or diabetes for yourself and for others throughout the nation including the future generations?  If you like what you see spread the good cheer.   Let’s build a stronger foundation regarding HEALTH in America.  So start eating a good heart healthy diet usually with still treating yourself at times throughout the year including daily or tri-weekly or bi-weekly exercise and balancing it with rest .  At least try to do stretching exercises daily.  Also try to keep stress to a minimum which work out helps you decrease.  Recommended is to check with your doctor about your diet and exercise changes especially if you have a disease or illness that the MD can direct you best in changes with knowing about your health history.

QUOTE FOR FRIDAY:

HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI), that it is a different virus than HIV and that HPV is so common that nearly all sexually active men and women get it at some point in their lives. CDC.  There are many different types of HPV, some types can cause health problems including genital warts and cancers but there are vaccines that can stop these health problems from happening=PREVENTION.

CDC (Centers for disease control and prevention)

 

What is Schizophrenia?



Schizophrenia is a serious disorder which effects how a person thinks, feels and acts.  A individual with this diagnosis may have difficulty distinguishing between what is real and what is imaginary; may be unresponsive or withdrawn; and may have difficulty expressing normal emotions in social situations.  The person with schizophrenia may have difficulty expressing normal emotions in social situations.

Contrary to public perception, schizophrenia is not split personality or multiple ones.  The vast majority of people with schizophrenia are not violent and do not pose a danger to others; if anyone they could put a danger to is themselves without supervision around.  Schizophrenia is not caused by childhood experiences, poor parenting, lack of will power.  The signs and symptoms of the disease are not the same for each person.

The cause of schizophrenia is still not clear.  Some theories about the cause of this disease include:  genetics (heredity), biology (the imbalance in the brain’s chemistry); and/or possible viral infections and immune disorders.

Another cause can be genetics (heredity).  Scientists recognize that the disorder tends to run in families and a person inherits to develop the disease.  Schizophrenia may also be triggered by environmental events like viral infections or highly stressful situations or a combination of both.  Similar to some other genetically-related illnesses, schizophrenia appears when the body undergoes hormonal and physical changes, like those that occur during puberty in the teen and young adult years.

Substance use can be another cause. Some studies have suggested that taking mind-altering drugs during teen years and young adulthood can increase the risk of schizophrenia. A growing body of evidence indicates that smoking marijuana increases the risk of psychotic incidents and the risk of ongoing psychotic experiences. The younger and more frequent the use, the greater the risk. Another study has found that smoking marijuana led to earlier onset of schizophrenia and often preceded the manifestation of the illness.

Another etiology deals with chemistry.  Genetics help to determine huw the brain uses certain chemicals.  People with schitzophrenia have a chemical imbalance of brain chemicals (serotonin and dopamine) which are neurotransmitters.  These neurotransmitters allow nerve cells in the brain that send messages to each nerve cell.  The brain is made up of nerve cells, called neurons, and chemicals, called neurotransmitters. An imbalance of one neurotransmitter, dopamine, is thought to cause the symptoms of schizophrenia. … The “dopamine hypothesis” has been the main theory regarding the cause of the symptoms of schizophrenia.  Dopamine is produced in the dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain, the substantia nigra pars compacta, and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.  With the imbalance these chemicals affects the way a person’s brain reacts to stimuli—which explains why a person with schizophrenia may be overwhelmed by sensory information (Ex. loud music or bright lights) which other people can easily handle.  This problem in processing different sounds, sights, smells and tastes can also lead to hallucinations or delusions.

Looking for a moment at Dopamine in different areas of the brain in both low and high amounts see how it effects brain thinking to better understand schizophrenia.

Dopamine in cognition:

Dopamine in the frontal lobes of the brain controls the flow of information from other areas of the brain. Disorders of dopamine in this region lead to decline in neurocognitive functions, especially memory, attention, and problem-solving.

D1 receptors and D4 receptors are responsible for the cognitive-enhancing effects of dopamine. Some of the antipsychotic medications used in conditions like schizophrenia act as dopamine antagonists. Older, so-called “typical” antipsychotics most commonly act on D2 receptors, while the atypical drugs also act on D1, D3 and D4 receptors.

Dopamine in movement

A part of the brain called the basal ganglia regulates movement. Basal ganglia in turn depend on a certain amount of dopamine to function at peak efficiency. The action of dopamine occurs via dopamine receptors, D1-5.

Dopamine reduces the influence of the indirect pathway, and increases the actions of the direct pathway within the basal ganglia. When there is a deficiency in dopamine in the brain, movements may become delayed and uncoordinated. On the flip side, if there is an excess of dopamine, the brain causes the body to make unnecessary movements, such as repetitive tics.

Dopamine in pleasure reward seeking behavior

Dopamine is the chemical that mediates pleasure in the brain. It is released during pleasurable situations and stimulates one to seek out the pleasurable activity or occupation. This means food, sex, and several drugs of abuse are also stimulants of dopamine release in the brain, particularly in areas such as the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex.

Dopamine and addiction

Cocaine and amphetamines inhibit the re-uptake of dopamine. Cocaine is a dopamine transporter blocker that competitively inhibits dopamine uptake to increase the presence of dopamine.

Amphetamine increases the concentration of dopamine in the synaptic gap, but by a different mechanism. Amphetamines are similar in structure to dopamine, and so can enter the presynaptic neuron via its dopamine transporters. By entering, amphetamines force dopamine molecules out of their storage vesicles. By increasing presence of dopamine both these lead to increased pleasurable feelings and addiction.

Dopamine in memory

Levels of dopamine in the brain, especially the prefrontal cortex, help in improved working memory. However, this is a delicate balance and as levels increase or decrease to abnormal levels, memory suffers.

Dopamine in attention

Dopamine helps in focus and attention. Vision helps a dopamine response in the brain and this in turn helps one to focus and direct their attention. Dopamine may be responsible for determining what stays in the short term memory based on an imagined response to certain information. Reduced dopamine concentrations in the prefrontal cortex are thought to contribute to attention deficit disorder.

Dopamine is affected in schizophrenia, just look at the functions of the chemical and the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia.

Signs and symptoms of schizophrenia:

Deficits in cognitive abilities are widely recognized as a core feature of this disease.  The deficits impacting the cognitive function are found in a large number of areas: working memory, long-term memory,verbaldeclarative memory, semantic processing, episodic memory, attention, learning (particularly verbal learning).  Deficits in verbal memory are the most pronounced in individuals with schizophrenia, and are not accounted for by deficit in attention. Verbal memory impairment has been linked to a decreased ability in individuals with schizophrenia to semantically encode (process information relating to meaning), which is cited as a cause for another known deficit in long-term memory.  When given a list of words, healthy individuals remember positive words more frequently (known as the Pollyanna principle); however, individuals with schizophrenia tend to remember all words equally regardless of their connotations, suggesting that the experience of anhedonia impairs the semantic encoding of the words.  These deficits have been found in individuals before the onset of the illness to some some extent and varying degrees.

-Delusions

-Hallucinations

-Disorganized speech

-Disorganized or catatonic behavior

TREATMENT FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA:

There is no cure for schizophrenia, but it can be treated and managed in several ways.

-Antipsychotic medications

-Psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy and assertive community treatment and supportive therapy.

– Self-management strategies and education

 

QUOTE FOR WEDNESDAY:

“The number of whole blood and red blood cell units collected in the U.S. in a year: 13.6 million.  The number of blood donors in the U.S. in a year: 6.8 million.”

American Heart Association

 

QUOTE FOR MONDAY:

“More than 285 million people are visually impaired worldwide — and of these cases, about 80 percent of them could have been avoided or cured.”

World Health Organization (WHO)

Health is so vitally important, including your eyes! Cataracts

 

 

 

Eyes in how our health is vital in keeping them work effectively!

Like all organs if your diet is not healthy you’ll effect their functioning, including your eyes. Take for example the ingredients you include in the foods & fluids you eat. Just like how some drink from one up to three thousand cc’s of water a day to help prevent dehydration in their tissues if they work out daily from a gym to running miles outside OR take someone who simply includes calcium in their diet for their bones. Well what is good for the eyes and what can you do to help both your eyes?

Get an annual comprehensive dilated eye exam, know your families eye history since many eye diseases are through heredity, eat an eye healthy & well-balanced diet rich in salmon, tuna, dark leafy greens, colored vegetables and fruits, wear sunglasses with UV protection and avoid smoking (which effects the body everywhere, including the eyes).

Cataracts

A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Most cataracts are related to aging. Cataracts are very common in older people. By age 80, more than half of all Americans either have a cataract or have had cataract surgery.

A cataract can occur in either or both eyes. It cannot spread from one eye to the other.

Yes. Although most cataracts are related to aging, there are other types of cataract:

-Secondary cataract. Cataracts can form after surgery for other eye problems, such as glaucoma. Cataracts also can develop in people who have other health problems, such as diabetes. Cataracts are sometimes linked to steroid use.

-Traumatic cataract. Cataracts can develop after an eye injury, sometimes years later.

-Congenital cataract. Some babies are born with cataracts or develop them in childhood, often in both eyes. These cataracts may be so small that they do not affect vision. If they do, the lenses may need to be removed.

-Radiation cataract. Cataracts can develop after exposure to some types of radiation

The most common symptoms of a cataract are:

  • Cloudy or blurry vision.
  • Colors seem faded.
  • Headlights, lamps, or sunlight may appear too bright. A halo may appear around lights.
  • Poor night vision.
  • Double vision or multiple images in one eye. (This symptom may clear as the cataract gets larger.)
  • Frequent prescription changes in your eyeglasses or contact lenses.
  • These symptoms also can be a sign of other eye problems. If you have any of these symptoms, check with your eye care professional.

TREATMENT

  • The symptoms of early cataract may be improved with new eyeglasses, brighter lighting, anti-glare sunglasses, or magnifying lenses. If these measures do not help, surgery is the only effective treatment. Surgery involves removing the cloudy lens and replacing it with an artificial lens.
  • A cataract needs to be removed only when vision loss interferes with your everyday activities, such as driving, reading, or watching TV. You and your eye care professional can make this decision together. Once you understand the benefits and risks of surgery, you can make an informed decision about whether cataract surgery is right for you. In most cases, delaying cataract surgery will not cause long-term damage to your eye or make the surgery more difficult. You do not have to rush into surgery.
  • Sometimes a cataract should be removed even if it does not cause problems with your vision. For example, a cataract should be removed if it prevents examination or treatment of another eye problem, such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. If your eye care professional finds a cataract, you may not need cataract surgery for several years. In fact, you might never need cataract surgery. By having your vision tested regularly, you and your eye care professional can discuss if and when you might need treatment.
  • If you choose surgery, your eye care professional may refer you to a specialist to remove the cataract.
  • If you have cataracts in both eyes that require surgery, the surgery will be performed on each eye at separate times, usually four to eight weeks apart.
  • Many people who need cataract surgery also have other eye conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration or glaucoma. If you have other eye conditions in addition to cataract, talk with your doctor. Learn about the risks, benefits, alternatives, and expected results of cataract surgery.

Know  the risks of cataract eye surgery:

As with any surgery, cataract surgery poses risks, such as infection and bleeding. Before cataract surgery, your doctor may ask you to temporarily stop taking certain medications that increase the risk of bleeding during surgery. After surgery, you must keep your eye clean, wash your hands before touching your eye, and use the prescribed medications to help minimize the risk of infection. Serious infection can result in loss of vision.

Cataract surgery slightly increases your risk of retinal detachment. Other eye disorders, such as high myopia (nearsightedness), can further increase your risk of retinal detachment after cataract surgery. One sign of a retinal detachment is a sudden increase in flashes or floaters. Floaters are little “cobwebs” or specks that seem to float about in your field of vision. If you notice a sudden increase in floaters or flashes, see an eye care professional immediately. A retinal detachment is a medical emergency. If necessary, go to an emergency service or hospital. Your eye must be examined by an eye surgeon as soon as possible. A retinal detachment causes no pain. Early treatment for retinal detachment often can prevent permanent loss of vision. The sooner you get treatment, the more likely you will regain good vision. Even if you are treated promptly, some vision may be lost.

Talk to your eye care professional about these risks. Make sure cataract surgery is right for you.