QUOTE FOR THURSDAY:

“Each month we highlight National Health Observances (NHOs) that align with our mission to improve health across the United States. In August we’re raising awareness about immunization, breastfeeding, and children’s eye health and safety.”

heath.gov

Children eye health and safety month awareness!

ways to keep your eyes healthy1eyes

Children eye health and safety month

August Is Children’s Eye Health and Safety Month!

It’s almost back-to-school time and are you prepared with your child’s enrollment forms, orientation schedules, and immunizations–but what about their eyes?

August is Children’s Eye Health and Safety Month—a great signal for you to get your child’s eyes checked before school starts.

Let’s Talk Eye Safety:

Use this month to discuss the importance of eye safety with your children.

More than 12 million children suffer from vision impairment, and eye injuries are one of the leading causes of vision loss in children*. There are an estimated 42,000 sports-related eye injuries each year and the majority of them happen to children.

Children should:

  • Wear protective eyewear while participating in sports or recreational activities
  • Play with are age-appropriate toys. Avoid toys with sharp or protruding parts

One of the best ways to ensure your child keeps his/her good vision throughout life is to set a good health example.

Talk to your child’s pediatrician if you suspect your child has any of the eye diseases below:

-Amblyopia (lazy eye) – also known as lazy eye, is a vision development disorder in which an eye fails to achieve normal visual acuity, even with prescription eyeglasses or contact lenses. Amblyopia begins during infancy and early childhood. In most cases, only one eye is affected. However, a common cause of amblyopia is strabismus. So if you notice your baby or young child has crossed eyes or some other apparent eye misalignment, schedule an appointment for a children’s eye exam immediately — preferably with an optometrist or ophthalmologist who specializes in children’s vision.

Another clue that your child may have amblyopia is if he or she cries or fusses when you cover one eye.

You can try this simple screening test at home by simply covering and uncovering your child’s eyes (one eye at a time) when he or she is performing a visual task, such as watching television.

-Strabismus (crossed eyes) – Strabismus is a condition that interferes with binocular vision because it prevents a person from directing both eyes simultaneously towards the same fixation point; the eyes do not properly align with each other. Heterotropia is a medical synonym for the condition. Colloquial terms for strabismus include “cross-eye”, “wall-eye”, and a “cast of the eye”. Strabismus in children does not go away on its own and strabismus in adults is treatable, so strabismus treatment is necessary.

-Ptosis (drooping of the eyelid) – Ptosis” is the medical term for a drooping upper eyelid. Eyelid drooping can sometimes affect your vision if it’s severe. Ptosis isn’t a disease. It’s actually a symptom of a condition that you should seek treatment for. Many things can cause ptosis. Some causes being stroke, diabetic neuropathy, myasthenia gravis, muscular dystrophy, botulism, brain aneurysm, adult brain tumor, pituitary cancer, & necrotizing vaculitis. An eye doctor will diagnose ptosis by carefully examining the eyelids. He or she will take detailed measurements of the height of the eyelids and will assess the strength of the eyelid muscles.Surgery can be an effective treatment for ptosis in both children and adult, improving vision as well as cosmetic appearance. It is very important that children with ptosis have regular ophthalmic examinations early in life to monitor their vision and prevent severe vision loss from untreated amblyopia..

-Color deficiency (color blindness) Two of the most common inherited forms of color blindness are protanopia and deuteranopia. Color vision deficiency (sometimes called color blindness) represents a group of conditions that affect the perception of color. Red-green color vision defects are the most common form of color vision deficiency which is in about 8 percent and 0.5 percent of females of European (northern) ancestry. Affected individuals have trouble distinguishing between some shades of red, yellow, and green. Blue-yellow color vision defects (also called tritan defects), which are rarer, cause problems with differentiating shades of blue and green and cause difficulty distinguishing dark blue from black. These two forms of color vision deficiency disrupt color perception but do not affect the sharpness of vision (visual acuity).

A less common and more severe form of color vision deficiency called blue cone monochromacy causes very poor visual acuity and severely reduced color vision. Affected individuals have additional vision problems, which can include increased sensitivity to light (photophobia), involuntary back-and-forth eye movements (nystagmus), and nearsightedness (myopia). Blue cone monochromacy is sometimes considered to be a form of achromatopsia, a disorder characterized by a partial or total lack of color vision with other vision problems

-Refractive errors (nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism) – The most common types of refractive errors are myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, and astigmatism. Myopia (nearsightedness) is a condition where objects up close appear clearly, while objects far away appear blurry. With myopia, light comes to focus in front of the retina instead of on the retina.

What are refractive errors?

Refractive errors occur when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the retina. The length of the eyeball (longer or shorter), changes in the shape of the cornea, or aging of the lens can cause refractive errors.

What is refraction?

Refraction is the bending of light as it passes through one object to another. Vision occurs when light rays are bent (refracted) as they pass through the cornea and the lens. The light is then focused on the retina. The retina converts the light-rays into messages that are sent through the optic nerve to the brain. The brain interprets these messages into the images we see.

Frequently Asked Questions about Refractive Errors

What are the different types of refractive errors?

The most common types of refractive errors are myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, and astigmatism.

Myopia (nearsightedness) is a condition where objects up close appear clearly, while objects far away appear blurry. With myopia, light comes to focus in front of the retina instead of on the retina.

Hyperopia (farsightedness) is a common type of refractive error where distant objects may be seen more clearly than objects that are near. However, people experience hyperopia differently. Some people may not notice any problems with their vision, especially when they are young. For people with significant hyperopia, vision can be blurry for objects at any distance, near or far.

Astigmatism is a condition in which the eye does not focus light evenly onto the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. This can cause images to appear blurry and stretched out.

Presbyopia is an age-related condition in which the ability to focus up close becomes more difficult. As the eye ages, the lens can no longer change shape enough to allow the eye to focus close objects clearly.

Risk Factors

Who is at risk for refractive errors?

Presbyopia affects most adults over age 35. Other refractive errors can affect both children and adults. Individuals that have parents with certain refractive errors may be more likely to get one or more refractive errors.

Symptoms and Detection

What are the signs and symptoms of refractive errors?

Blurred vision is the most common symptom of refractive errors. Other symptoms may include:

  • Double vision
  • Haziness
  • Glare or halos around bright lights
  • Squinting
  • Headaches
  • Eye strain
  • How refractive errors are diagnosed?

  • An eye care professional can diagnose refractive errors during a comprehensive dilated eye examination. People with a refractive error often visit their eye care professional with complaints of visual discomfort or blurred vision. However, some people don’t know they aren’t seeing as clearly as they could.
  • How are refractive errors treated?

  • Eyeglasses are the simplest and safest way to correct refractive errors. Your eye care professional can prescribe appropriate lenses to correct your refractive error and give you optimal vision.If you have certain eye conditions you may not be able to wear contact lenses. Discuss this with your eye care professional.
  • Refractive Surgery aims to change the shape of the cornea permanently. This change in eye shape restores the focusing power of the eye by allowing the light rays to focus precisely on the retina for improved vision. There are many types of refractive surgeries. Your eye care professional can help you decide if surgery is an option for you.
  • Contact Lenses work by becoming the first refractive surface for light rays entering the eye, causing a more precise refraction or focus. In many cases, contact lenses provide clearer vision, a wider field of vision, and greater comfort. They are a safe and effective option if fitted and used properly. It is very important to wash your hands and clean your lenses as instructed in order to reduce the risk of infection.
  • Refractive errors can be corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery

 

QUOTE FOR WEDNESDAY:

“According to the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA):

  • Breastfeeding without other foods or fluids for the first 4 to 6 months of life is the best start for all babies
  • Breastfeeding reduces the risk of ovarian and breast cancer, type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and cardiovascular disease
  • Breastfeeding saves money

DISTRICT HEALTH DEPARTMENT  DHD https://www.dhd10.org/world-breastfeeding-month-2022/

Breastfeeding Awareness Month

World Breastfeeding Week is celebrated every year from 1 to 7 August to encourage breastfeeding and improve the health of babies around the world.

It commemorates the Innocenti Declaration signed in August 1990 by government policymakers, WHO, UNICEF and other organizations to protect, promote and support breastfeeding.

Breastfeeding is the best way to provide infants with the nutrients they need. WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding starting within one hour after birth until a baby is 6 months old. Nutritious complementary foods should then be added while continuing to breastfeed for up to 2 years or beyond.

August is National Breastfeeding Awareness Month. The breastfeeding campaign, funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, hopes to empower women to commit to breastfeeding by highlighting new research showing that babies who are exclusively breastfed for six months are less likely to develop ear infections, diarrhea and respiratory illnesses, and may be less likely to develop childhood obesity.

This year, WHO is working with UNICEF and partners to promote the importance of helping mothers breastfeed their babies within that crucial first hour of life. Skin-to-skin contact along with suckling at the breast stimulate the production of breastmilk, including colostrum, also called the baby’s ‘first vaccine’, which is extremely rich in nutrients and antibodies.  Breastfeeding your baby can lower the risk of SIDS by as much as 50%, though experts aren’t sure why. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby less than a year old. SIDS is sometimes known as crib death because the infants often die in their cribs.  Some think breast milk may protect babies from infections that raise their SIDS risk. Do not drink alcohol if you breastfeed, because that raises your baby’s risk of SIDS. In addition, the simple touch is helpful. Skin-to-skin contact is important for your baby’s development.

Breastfeeding: it’s one of the most natural and intimate of all human interactions. But, just because it’s natural doesn’t mean it’s easy—especially in those first few overwhelming weeks with your newborn.  Breastfeeding takes knowledge and practice.

 

 

Part II Hemorrhagic Fever – how its transmitted, risk factors, complications & risk factors!

How is it transmitted?

Some viral hemorrhagic fevers are spread by mosquito or tick bites. Others are spread by contact with infected body fluids, such as blood, saliva or semen. A few varieties can be inhaled from infected rat feces or urine.

If you travel to an area where a particular hemorrhagic fever is common, you can be infected there but not develop symptoms until after you return home. Depending on the type of virus, it can take from two to 21 days for symptoms to develop.

Risk factors

Living in or traveling to an area where a particular viral hemorrhagic fever is common will increase your risk of becoming infected with that particular virus. Other factors that can increase your risk include:

  • Working with infected people
  • Slaughtering or eating infected animals
  • Sharing needles to use intravenous drugs
  • Having unprotected sex
  • Working outdoors or in rat-infested buildings
  • Being exposed to infected blood or other body fluids

Complications

Viral hemorrhagic fevers can cause:

  • Septic shock
  • Multiorgan failure
  • Death

Prevention

Preventing viral hemorrhagic fevers is challenging. If you live in, work in or travel to areas where these diseases are common, protect yourself from infection by using appropriate protective barriers when working with blood or body fluids. For example, wear gloves and eye and face shields. Precautions also include careful handling, disinfection and disposal of lab specimens and waste.

Get vaccinated

The yellow fever vaccine is generally considered safe and effective. However, in rare cases, serious side effects can occur. The yellow fever vaccine isn’t recommended for children younger than 9 months of age; pregnant women, especially during the first trimester; or people with compromised immune systems.

There’s also an Ebola vaccination that protects against one type of Ebola. Check with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about the status of the countries you’re visiting — some require certificates of vaccination for entry.

Avoid mosquitoes and ticks

Do your best to avoid these insects, especially when traveling in areas where there are outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fevers. Wear light-colored long pants and long-sleeved shirts or, better yet, permethrin-coated clothing. Don’t apply permethrin directly to the skin.

Avoid being outside, if possible, at dusk and dawn when mosquitoes are most active, and apply mosquito repellent with a 20% to 25% concentration of DEET to your skin and clothing. If you’re staying in tented camps or in hotels, use bed nets and mosquito coils.

Guard against rodents

If you live where there are outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fevers, take steps to keep rodents out of your home:

  • Keep pet food covered and stored in rodent-proof containers.
  • Store trash in rodent-proof containers, and clean the containers often.
  • Dispose of garbage regularly.
  • Make sure doors and windows have tightfitting screens.
  • Keep woodpiles, stacks of bricks and other materials at least 100 feet from your house.
  • Mow your grass closely and keep brush trimmed to within 100 feet of your house.

QUOTE FOR MONDAY:

“Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of diseases that are caused by several distinct families of viruses. The term “viral hemorrhagic fever” refers to a condition that affects many organ systems of the body, damages the overall cardiovascular system, and reduces the body’s ability to function on its own. Symptoms of this type of condition can vary but often include bleeding, or hemorrhaging. Some VHFs cause relatively mild illness, while others can cause severe, life threatening disease. Most VHFs have no known cure or vaccine.”

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Part I What is Hemorrhagic Fever”, also called VHF meaning Viral Hemorrhagic!

        

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses caused by four families of viruses. These include the Ebola and Marburg, Lassa fever, and yellow fever viruses. VHFs have common features: they affect many organs, they damage the blood vessels, and they affect the body’s ability to regulate itself. Some VHFs cause mild disease, but some, like Ebola or Marburg, cause severe disease and death.

VHFs are found around the world. Specific diseases are usually limited to areas where the animals that carry them live. For example, Lassa fever is limited to rural areas of West Africa where rats and mice carry the virus.

The risk for travelers is low, but you should avoid visiting areas where there are disease outbreaks. Because there are no effective treatments for some of these viral infections, there is concern about their use in bioterrorism.

These diseases most commonly occur in tropical areas. In the United States, people who get them usually have recently traveled to one of those areas.

There’s no cure for viral hemorrhagic fevers. There are vaccines for only a few types. Until additional vaccines are developed, the best approach is prevention.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of viral hemorrhagic fevers vary by disease. In general, early signs and symptoms can include:

  • Fever
  • Fatigue, weakness or general feeling of being unwell
  • Dizziness
  • Muscle, bone or joint aches
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea

Symptoms that can become life-threatening

More-severe symptoms include:

  • Bleeding under the skin, in internal organs, or from the mouth, eyes or ears
  • Nervous system malfunctions
  • Coma
  • Delirium
  • Kidney failure
  • Respiratory failure
  • Liver failure

Causes

Viral hemorrhagic fevers are spread by contact with infected animals or insects. The viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fevers live in a variety of animal and insect hosts. Most commonly the hosts include mosquitoes, ticks, rodents or bats.

Some viral hemorrhagic fevers can also be spread from person to person.

Stayed tune tomorrow learning more in Part II on Hemorrhagic Fever!

 

QUOTE FOR THE WEEKEND:

“The nervous system is a complex, sophisticated system that regulates and coordinates body activities. It is made up of two major divisions, including the following:

  • Central nervous system. This consists of the brain and spinal cord.
  • Peripheral nervous system. This consists of all other neural elements, including the peripheral nerves and the autonomic nerves.

The best way to manage nervous system disorders is with the help of a team of healthcare providers. You may not need all members of the team at any given time. But it’s good to know who they are and how they can help.”.

John Hopkins Medicine

Nervous system Disorders, those at risk for them, S/S, and how HCP treat these disorders!

 

The nervous system transmits signals between the brain and the rest of the body, including internal organs. In this way, the nervous system’s activity controls the ability to move, breathe, see, think, and more.

The nervous system is a complex, sophisticated system that regulates and coordinates body activities. It is made up of two major divisions or has 2 main parts, including the following:

  • Central nervous system. This consists of the brain and spinal cord.
  • Peripheral nervous system. This consists of all other neural elements, including the peripheral nerves and the autonomic nerves.

In addition to the brain and spinal cord, principal organs of the nervous system include the following:

  • Eyes
  • Ears
  • Sensory organs of taste
  • Sensory organs of smell
  • Sensory receptors located in the skin, joints, muscles, and other parts of the body

What are some disorders of the nervous system?

The nervous system is vulnerable to various disorders. It can be damaged by the following:

  • Trauma
  • Infections
  • Degeneration
  • Structural defects
  • Tumors
  • Blood flow disruption
  • Autoimmune disorders

Disorders of the nervous system

Disorders of the nervous system may involve the following:

  • Vascular disorders, such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage and hematoma, and extradural hemorrhage
  • Infections, such as meningitis, encephalitis, polio, and epidural abscess
  • Structural disorders, such as brain or spinal cord injury, Bell’s palsy, cervical spondylosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, brain or spinal cord tumors, peripheral neuropathy, and Guillain-Barré syndrome
  • Functional disorders, such as headache, epilepsy, dizziness, and neuralgia
  • Degeneration, such as Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington chorea, and Alzheimer disease

Signs and symptoms of nervous system disorders

The following are the most common general signs and symptoms of a nervous system disorder. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Persistent or sudden onset of a headache
  • A headache that changes or is different
  • Loss of feeling or tingling
  • Weakness or loss of muscle strength
  • Sudden loss of sight or double vision
  • Memory loss
  • Impaired mental ability
  • Lack of coordination
  • Muscle rigidity
  • Tremors and seizures
  • Back pain which radiates to the feet, toes, or other parts of the body
  • Muscle wasting and slurred speech

The symptoms of a nervous system disorder may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

Healthcare providers who treat nervous system disorders

Healthcare providers who treat nervous system disorders may have to spend a lot of time working with the patient before making a probable diagnosis of the specific condition. Many times, this involves performing numerous tests to eliminate other conditions, so that the probable diagnosis can be made.

Neurology. The branch of medicine that manages nervous system disorders is called neurology. The medical healthcare providers who treat nervous system disorders are called neurologists.

Neurological surgery. The branch of medicine that provides surgical intervention for nervous system disorders is called neurosurgery, or neurological surgery. Surgeons who operate as a treatment team for nervous system disorders are called neurological surgeons or neurosurgeons.

Rehabilitation for neurological disorders. The branch of medicine that provides rehabilitative care for patients with nervous system disorders is called physical medicine and rehabilitation. Healthcare providers who work with patients in the rehabilitation process are called physiatrists.