Archive | May 2022

QUOTE FOR TUESDAY:

“No matter how thrilled you are to be one of the very few who gets such an opportunity in seeing a animal rare and possibly an animal lover but knowing this animal is rare with history of being dangerous, stay well back, and take the encounter seriously,”.

Mountain Lion Foundation (Nonprofit)

Part I The top deadliest creatures to man in and out of the USA; especially for traveling!

 

 

Deadliest Animals in the USA

1-The Scorpions

They outlasted the Dinosaurs, There are about 1500 species in all. This creature may not look so threatening to the human eye but believe or not some of these scorpions can be highly venomous like in North Africa and in the Middle East; that is responsible for over 75% of scorpion related deaths every year. This scorpion is the Death Stalker Scorpion.  All scorpions are considered to be arachnids, 4 pairs of legs for walking, a pair of pincers for holding prey, and mouth parts called chelicerae(s) to chew, the body tapers ending at its stinger and use it usually as a last resort. Most scorpions are shy and lie around waiting for its prey like a roach, cricket, etc… to even eating themselves; including rather than humans it usually only eats insects and stings humans in defense feeling threatened usually (the sting as a last resort). They are nocturnal insects usually. Scorpions are built for battle and crush their prey and immobilize (by paralyzing)them with that venom with sometimes doing it to their own species (eating their own sibling even).

Though do not blind or kid yourselves if living in America thinking there is no killer scorpion in this country is so off base. There are varying types in all countries but Antarctica. Of those 1500 species only a few dozen are potentially lethal to human beings.

Indian Red Scorpion

Indianredscorpionindianredscorion

 

One of the top deadliest to humans is the sting of the Indian Red Scorpion. National Geographic-NG states it’s the most lethal of all. It’s only a tiny creature that possesses a killing elixir. NG states if it lives near people it often takes shelter where they do; and states this creatures is in countries like India, scorpion stings are a serious public health issue, particularly children (a country to walk commonly bare foot in the road/streets).

In the U.S. they are also found in the southwest, preferring the warm, dry climates found in Arizona, California and New Mexico.

Children are particularly susceptible to these bites and are more likely to die from them than adults. Although healthy adults usually only feel unbearable pain, children that are envenomated suffering a fever, coma, convulsions, and paralysis before their lungs fill up and they drown in their own fluids.

Fat Tailed Scorpions

fat tailed scorpion

Also known as fat tailed,Androctonus Scorpion is the most dangerous scorpion specie found in the world. Just 4 inches in length, this beast can kill human beings in minutes.Androctonus mostly lives under rocks and other shelter. They avoid coastal areas or anywhere that is high humidity. Some individuals may burrow from time to time. Unfortunately, their hiding places are often located near humans. Androctonus is widespread in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Togo, Israel, India, Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Bahrain and Pakistan.

Death Stalker Scorpion

deathstalkerscorpion2stripedbarkscorpion

Commonly known as Death Stalker, this specie is second most dangerous in our list. The death stalker is regarded as a highly dangerous species because its venom is most powerful and most painful and can kill children and elderly.  People can be found in the desert and scrubland habitats ranging from North Africa through to the Middle East. Countries where it lives include Algeria, Bahrain, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, Libya, Mali, Niger, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen.

Gormar Scorpion

gormarscorpion

The gormar scorpion ranges from 4 to 5 inches in length and weighs several ounces. It is solid black with an exceptionally thick exoskeleton and black legs with a slightly reddish tinge The Gormar Scorpion has a large tail and a particularly large stinger. Its ability to kill anyone in 10 minutes is the reason we have Gormar one of the top deadliest scorpions. Gormar scorpions live only in Venezuela. They make their homes in the jungles and tropical rain forests of the country. A single Gormar sting can kill an average-sized man in a few minutes. There is no anti-venom, so a person who has been stung must be treated with vasodilators and analgesics.

Red Claw Scorpion

redclawscorpion1 redclawscorpion2

The Red Claw Scorpion has commonly been called the Tanzanian Red Claw. Its scientific name is Pandinus Cavimanus. The sting of a Red Claw Scorpion has been compared to the sting of a bee.  Children who get stung by them can get badly hurt, and can even die as a result of an allergic reaction.  They are found living within humid rainforests of Tanzanian, Africa. They like to hide and may be found living under rocks, fallen logs or in shallow burrows.

Emperor Scorpion

emperorscorpionemperorscorpion2

The Emperor Scorpion is native to Africa. It is one of the largest scorpions in the world and lives for 5–8 years. It has a large, shiny black body and bumpy pincers. Its venom is mild and the scorpion as a whole is not very aggressive. The emperor scorpion is an African rainforest species. It is found in a number of African countries, including Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Togo, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria.

Other deadly ones found in America:

Arizona Bark Scorpion:

Arizona Bark Scorpion Arizona Bark Scorpion2

 

Size

The average length of mature Bark Scorpions is 1.5 inches.

Description

The Arizona Bark Scorpion is typically a golden-yellow color or very light brown.. It has a slender tail and pincers.

Distribution

In the United States, the Arizona Bark Scorpion is found in Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah. Outside of the United States, it is found in Northwestern Mexico.

Stripe Backed Scorpion:

stripedbarkscorpion stripebacked_scorpion

Size

The average length of mature Stripe backed Scorpions is 2.5 inches.

Description

The Stripe Backed Scorpion varies in color from yellowish-tan to brown. As you can see in the picture below, the Stripe Backed Scorpion has 2 dark gray lines that run the length of it’s back. Older scorpions tend to be a darker brown, and the stripes may not be as obvious.

Distribution

In the United States, the Stripe Backed Scorpion is found in Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Texas. It is the most widespread scorpion in the United States. Outside of the United States, it is found in Northern Mexico.

So you may want to study about areas you travel to (especially warm climate areas for hiking and nice weather to even camping) in knowing what the state or country is known for in animals or creatures that could cause injury to you or even kill you with knowing how to prevent it, if possible.

 

QUOTE FOR WEEKEND:

Animal-to-human (zoonotic) transmission can occur from direct contact with the blood, bodily fluids, or cutaneous or mucosal lesions of infected animals. In Africa, evidence of monkeypox virus infection has been found in many animals including rope squirrels, tree squirrels, Gambian poached rats, dormice, different species of monkeys and others.  In July 2003, there were 71 cases of monkeypox reported   The cases came from several states: Wisconsin had 39 cases; Indiana, 16; Illinois, 12; Missouri, 2; Kansas, 1; and Ohio, 1.  Eating inadequately cooked meat and other animal products of infected animals is a possible risk factor. People living in or near forested areas may have indirect or low-level exposure to infected animals.  Investigators determined that a shipment of animals from Ghana, imported to Texas in April 2003, introduced monkeypox virus into the United States. By June 2003, at least 30 people received the smallpox vaccine, including 28 adults and two children. The vaccine was given pre-exposure to some and postexposure to othe  No serious adverse events were reported following smallpox vaccination.   On May 7, the UK Health Security Agency confirmed a case of monkeypox in a patient who had traveled from Nigeria to the United Kingdom.  As of May 20, the UKHSA has detected 20 cases of monkeypox since May 6.  Scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are collaborating with the Massachusetts Department of Public Health to investigate a situation in which a U.S. resident tested positive for monkeypox on May 18 after returning to the U.S. from Canada.  CDC is also tracking multiple clusters of monkeypox that have been reported in early- to mid-May in several countries that don’t normally report monkeypox, including in Europe and North America.  U.S. monkeypox cases are very rare. Monkeypox does not occur naturally in the United States, but cases have happened that were associated with international travel or importing animals from areas where the disease is more common.”

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

What is monkey pox?

Monkeypox was first discovered in 1958 when two outbreaks of a pox-like disease occurred in colonies of monkeys kept for research, hence the name ‘monkeypox.’ The first human case of monkeypox was recorded in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) during a period of intensified effort to eliminate smallpox. Since then, monkeypox has been reported in people in several other central and western African countries: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Cote d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Liberia, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo, and Sierra Leone. The majority of infections are in Democratic Republic of the Congo.

There are two distinct genetic clades of the monkeypox virus – the Central African (Congo Basin) clade and the West African clade. The Congo Basin clade has historically caused more severe disease and was thought to be more transmissible. The geographical division between the two clades has so far been in Cameroon – the only country where both virus clades have been found.

Monkeypox is a viral zoonosis (a virus transmitted to humans from animals) with symptoms very similar to those seen in the past in smallpox patients, although it is clinically less severe. Monkeypox virus is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family.   With the eradication of smallpox in 1980 and subsequent cessation of smallpox vaccination, monkeypox has emerged as the most important orthopoxvirus for public health. Monkeypox primarily occurs in Central and West Africa, often in proximity to tropical rainforests and has been increasingly appearing in urban areas. Animal hosts include a range of rodents and non-human primates.

Various animal species have been identified as susceptible to monkeypox virus.. This includes rope squirrels, tree squirrels, Gambian pouched rats, dormice, non-human primates and other species. Uncertainty remains on the natural history of monkeypox virus and further studies are needed to identify the exact reservoir(s) and how virus circulation is maintained in nature.

Monkeypox cases in people have occurred outside of Africa linked to international travel or imported animals, including cases in the United States, as well as Israel, Singapore, and the United Kingdom.

The natural reservoir of monkeypox remains unknown. However, African rodents and non-human primates (like monkeys) may harbor the virus and infect people.

 

 

QUOTE FOR FRIDAY:

“Too many people ignore the signs of stroke because they question whether their symptoms are real. Don’t wait if you have any unusual symptoms. Listen to your body and trust your instincts. If something is off, get professional help right away that is the best way to treat it.  The sooner to ER the better if there since its a 3 to 4.5 hour window from when the symptoms started in a ischemic stroke that it will be given TPA Rx (but in hemorrhagic stroke straight to the OR, if the pt is a candidate). There are so many ways to prevent it like the a patient with high BP.  High blood pressure is a huge factor, doubling or even quadrupling your stroke risk if it is not controlled. High blood pressure is the biggest contributor to the risk of stroke in both men and women.”

Harvard Health Publishing / Harvard Medical School

Part III Stroke Awareness – Rx and how to prevent one!

Part III stroke   stroke III

Part III stroke  Part III stroke

A.) TREATMENT OF STROKES

If you’re having a stroke, it’s critical that you get medical attention right away. Immediate treatment may minimize the long-term effects of a stroke and prevent death.

Ischemic Stroke Treatment

1.)tPA, the Gold Standard

The only FDA approved treatment for ischemic strokes is tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, also known as IV rtPA, given through an IV in the arm). tPA works by dissolving the clot and improving blood flow to the part of the brain being deprived of blood flow. If administered within 3 hours(and up to 4.5 hours in certain eligible patients), tPA may improve the chances of recovering from a stroke. A significant number of stroke victims don’t get to the hospital in time for tPA treatment; this is why it’s so important to identify a stroke immediately.

2.)Endovascular Procedures

Another treatment option is an endovascular procedure* called mechanical thrombectomy, strongly recommended, in which  trained doctors try  removing a large blood clot by  sending a wired-caged device called a stent retriever, to the site of the blocked blood vessel in the brain. To remove the brain clot, doctors thread a catheter through an artery in the groin up to the blocked artery in the brain. The stent opens and grabs the clot, allowing doctors to remove the stent with the trapped clot. Special suction tubes may also be used. The procedure should be done within six hours of acute stroke symptoms, and only after a patient receives tPA.   *Note: Patients must meet certain criteria to be eligible for this procedure. Image courtesy of Medtronic

Hemorrhagic Stroke Treatment

1.)Endovascular Procedures Endovascular procedures may be used to treat certain hemorrhagic strokes similar to the way the procedure is used for treating an ischemic stroke. These procedures are less invasive than surgical treatments, and involve the use of a catheter introduced through a major artery in the leg or arm, then guided to the aneurysm or AVM; it then deposits a mechanical agent, such as a coil, to prevent rupture.

2.)Surgical Treatment For strokes caused by a bleed within the brain (hemorrhagic stroke), or by an abnormal tangle of blood vessels (AVM), surgical treatment may be done to stop the bleeding. If the bleed is caused by a ruptured aneurysm (swelling of the vessel that breaks), a metal clip may be placed surgically at the base of the aneurysm to secure it.

B.) How to prevent a stroke!

Treatment is also aimed at other factors that put you at risk, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol. But it takes more than just your doctor’s efforts. You also have an important role to play in preventing stroke. It’s up to you to make lifestyle changes that can lower your risk.

What you can do to prevent a stroke:

1-Control your blood pressure.

2-Lose Weight to the point that your in a healthy weight for your height. If you’re overweight, losing as little as 10 pounds can have a real impact on your stroke risk.      Try to eat no more than 1,500 to 2,000 calories a day (depending on your activity level and your current body mass index). Increase the amount of exercise you do with such activities as walking, golfing, or playing tennis, and by making activity part of every single day.

3-Exercise More-Exercise contributes to losing weight and lowering blood pressure, but it also stands on its own as an independent stroke reducer. Exercise at a moderate intensity 5x/wk and if you can’t do ½ hr as day spread it out into 2 15minute exercise moments for the day.

4- Drink-in moderation What you’ve heard is true. Drinking can make you less likely to have a stroke—up to a point. “Studies show that if you have about one drink per day, your risk may be lower. I am not saying drink one glass of liquor a day but if you have to limit it to one glass a day. Red wine your first choice, because it contains resveratrol, which is thought to protect the heart and brain.

5-Atrial Fibrillation-Atrial fibrillation is a form of irregular heartbeat that causes clots to form in the heart. Those clots can then travel to the brain, producing a stroke. “Atrial fibrillation carries almost a fivefold risk of stroke, and should be taken seriously; take your anticoagulant medication the MD orders to keep the blood thin to prevent clotting.

6-Treat diabetes –Having high blood sugar over time damages blood vessels, making clots more likely to form inside them putting the person at higher risk for a stroke. So simply keep your sugar under control.

7-QUIT Smoking-Along with a healthy diet and regular exercise, smoking cessation is one of the most powerful lifestyle changes that will help you reduce your stroke risk

 

 

QUOTE FOR THURSDAY:

“If you or someone you’re with may be having a stroke, pay particular attention to the time the symptoms began.  It determines the treatment in the ER!  Typical symptoms of stroke trouble speaking and what words are being said, weakness/paralysis of one arm or side of the face or body, trouble seeing out of one eye or both, trouble walking if at all and sudden confusion.”

MAYO CLINIC

Part II Stroke awareness – Symptoms of a Stroke and Dx!

stroke part II  stroke part IIb

Signs and Symptoms of a stroke happening:

Symptoms of stroke include trouble walking, speaking, and understanding, as well as paralysis or numbness of the face, arm, or leg.

People may experience the following:                                                                      

Muscular: difficulty walking, paralysis with weak muscles, problems with coordination, stiff muscles, overactive reflexes, or paralysis of one side of the body

Visual: blurred vision, double vision, sudden visual loss, or temporary loss of vision in one eye

Whole body: balance disorder, fatigue, or lightheadedness

Speech: difficulty speaking, slurred speech, or speech loss

Sensory: pins and needles or reduced sensation of touch

Facial: muscle weakness or numbness

Limbs: numbness or weakness

Also common: difficulty swallowing, headache, inability to understand, mental confusion, numbness, or rapid involuntary eye movement

What is done for a stroke regarding diagnostic tooling:

 To determine the most appropriate treatment for your stroke, your emergency team needs to evaluate the type of stroke you’re having and the areas of your brain affected by the stroke. They also need to rule out other possible causes of your symptoms, such as a brain tumor or a drug reaction. Your doctor may use several tests to determine your risk of stroke, including:

CT scan of brain tissue damaged by stroke

Cerebral angiogram A cerebral angiogram showing a carotid aneurysm due to a stroke.

Physical examination. Your doctor will ask you or a family member what symptoms you’ve been having, when they started and what you were doing when they began. Your doctor then will evaluate whether these symptoms are still present.

Your doctor will want to know what medications you take and whether you have experienced any head injuries. You’ll be asked about your personal and family history of heart disease, transient ischemic attack or stroke.

Your doctor will check your blood pressure and use a stethoscope to listen to your heart and to listen for a whooshing sound (bruit) over your neck (carotid) arteries, which may indicate atherosclerosis. Your doctor may also use an ophthalmoscope to check for signs of tiny cholesterol crystals or clots in the blood vessels at the back of your eyes.

Blood tests. You may have several blood tests, which tell your care team how fast your blood clots, whether your blood sugar is abnormally high or low, whether critical blood chemicals are out of balance, or whether you may have an infection. Managing your blood’s clotting time and levels of sugar and other key chemicals will be part of your stroke care.

Computerized tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan uses a series of X-rays to create a detailed image of your brain. A CT scan can show a hemorrhage, tumor, stroke and other conditions. Doctors may inject a dye into your bloodstream to view your blood vessels in your neck and brain in greater detail (computerized tomography angiography).  The goal is if the CT scan determined the stroke to be a ischemic stroke start rtpa a drug IV if the symptoms of the stroke started in the past 3 hrs if not treat it another way OR if the stroke is determined to be hemorrhagic than its the OR.  Will go into treatment in more detail in Part III tomorrow.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI uses powerful radio waves and magnets to create a detailed view of your brain. An MRI can detect brain tissue damaged by an ischemic stroke and brain hemorrhages. Your doctor may inject a dye into a blood vessel to view the arteries and veins and highlight blood flow (magnetic resonance angiography, or magnetic resonance venography).

Carotid ultrasound. In this test, sound waves create detailed images of the inside of the carotid arteries in your neck. This test shows buildup of fatty deposits (plaques) and blood flow in your carotid arteries.

Cerebral angiogram. In this test, your doctor inserts a thin, flexible tube (catheter) through a small incision, usually in your groin, and guides it through your major arteries and into your carotid or vertebral artery. Then your doctor injects a dye into your blood vessels to make them visible under X-ray imaging. This procedure gives a detailed view of arteries in your brain and neck.

Echocardiogram. An echocardiogram uses sound waves to create detailed images of your heart. An echocardiogram can find a source of clots in your heart that may have traveled from your heart to your brain and caused your stroke.

You may have a transesophageal echocardiogram. In this test, your doctor inserts a flexible tube with a small device (transducer) attached into your throat and down into the tube that connects the back of your mouth to your stomach (esophagus). Because your esophagus is directly behind your heart, a transesophageal echocardiogram can create clear, detailed ultrasound images of your heart and any blood clots.

In reality going to an ER room if the pt comes suspected of a stroke and has symptoms or not than nationally in America the hospitals are to do the following:

-A neuro assessment should be done in 10 minutes  by the doctor.

-A CT SCAN ordered and pt sent off for the CT SCAN test and done within 25 minutes.

-The CT SCAN read and interpreted by the radiologist / neuro doctor within 45 minutes.                        At this point it tells the MD if the pt has a blockage or a hemmorage in the brain that caused the stroke. Remember a ischemic stroke and hemmoragic stroke are treated differently.

We’ll get into treatment tomorrow in Part III Treatment of a stroke.

 

QUOTE FOR WEDNESDAY:

“In 2020, 1 in 6 deaths from cardiovascular disease was due to stroke.  Every 40 seconds, someone in the United States has a stroke. Every 3.5 minutes, someone dies of stroke.  Every year, more than 795,000 people in the United States have a stroke. About 610,000 of these are first or new strokes.”

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)