Acute Renal Failure:
Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys lose their ability to function. To treat kidney failure effectively, it is important to know whether kidney disease has developed suddenly (acute) or over the long term (chronic). Many conditions, diseases, and medicines can create situations that lead to acute and chronic kidney disease. Acute kidney injury, also called acute renal failure, is more commonly reversible than chronic kidney failure since the chronic condition has lasted longer in the body affecting systems for several months to years (some decades). Acute Renal Failure is new to the body as opposed to chronic; making it higher odds this can be treated and cured.
When acute kidney injury occurs, the kidneys are unable to remove waste products and excess fluids, which then build up in the body and upset the body’s normal chemical balance.*
The most common causes of acute kidney injury are:
-blood loss from major surgery or injury
-medicines such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antibiotics, or the dyes (contrast agents) used in X-ray tests.
Symptoms depend on the cause of the problem of acute renal failure and can include:
- -Little or no urine output.
- -Dizziness upon standing.
- -Swelling, especially of the legs and feet.
- -Loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting.
- -Feeling confused, anxious and restless, or sleepy.
- -Pain in the flank, which is felt just below the rib cage and above the waist on one or both sides of the back.* Most cases of acute kidney injury occur in people who are already in the hospital for other reasons. In these people, acute kidney injury is usually diagnosed when routine tests show a sudden increase in creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. A buildup of these waste products in the blood points to a loss of kidney function.
Further your doctor will do the following to diagnose the condition other than blood tests:
- -Your doctor will compare these levels to previous tests to find out if kidney disease is acute or chronic.
- -Also commonly done is an ultrasound of the kidneys which may help determine whether kidney problems are acute or chronic. Normal-sized kidneys may be present in either condition, but when both kidneys are smaller than normal, chronic kidney disease is usually the problem. This helps rule out acute from chronic. *
The treatment of acute kidney injury includes:
–correcting the cause and supporting the kidneys with dialysis until proper functioning is restored. Most people who develop acute kidney injury are already in the hospital.
Chronic Renal Failure:
In giving a short and easily understandable definition Chronic kidney disease happens when your kidneys no longer filter your blood the way they should, so wastes (toxins, usually end products of an acid) build up in your blood. This has probably been going on for years, and it may keep getting worse over time. Just like a car engine damaged but still using the car without getting the engine repaired sooner or later in time the engine no longer functions the same with any organ of the body getting damaged by some long term condition. If your disease gets worse and worse over time, you could have kidney failure for some multi organ failure, depending on the condition causing this.*
The most common causes of Chronic Renal Failure are:
-Diabetes (uncontrolled diabetes (Type 1 or 2) for many years.
*-High blood pressure for many years.
These are the top 2 causes of most chronic kidney disease. Controlling these diseases can help slow or stop the damage to the individual’s kidneys who has one of these, if not both.
Other causes that can lead to chronic kidney disease include: -Kidney diseases and infections, such as polycystic kidney disease, pyelonephritis, and glomerulonephritis, or a kidney problem you were born with.
-A narrowed or blocked renal artery. A renal artery carries blood to the kidneys.
-Long-term use of medicines that can damage the kidneys. Examples include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as celecoxib and ibuprofen.
Know this for starters, each of your kidneys has about a million tiny filters, called nephrons.The nephron is the tiny filtering structure in your kidneys. Each of your kidneys contain more than a million tiny filtering nephrons that help clean your blood removing toxins dumping them into your urinary bladder so you can evacuate them though urine (urea, urine; get it). Your nephrons play a vital role to our essential daily living. They help all humans do the following if there kidneys or one kidney is functioning properly. They:
- -Remove excess water, wastes (like urea, ammonia, etc.) & other substances from your blood.
- -Return substances like sodium, potassium or phosphorus whenever any of these substances run low in your body.
- If nephrons are damaged by the high sugar content or high blood pressure in the kidneys, they stop working. For a while, healthy nephrons can take on the extra work or overload. But if the damage continues, more and more nephrons shut down. After a certain point, the nephrons that are left cannot filter your blood well enough to keep you’re blood filtered properly to keep you healthy. Just like running from a bear in the street chancing you. We can run only so long but sooner or later we will run out of energy and not be able to run anymore, same concept for the kidney nephrons when they run out of enough not properly working.
How well your kidneys work is called kidney function. As your kidney function gets worse, you may show these symptoms:
-Urinate less than normal.
-Have swelling and weight gain from fluid buildup in your tissues. This is called edema.
-Feel very tired or sleepy.
-Not feel hungry, or you may lose weight without trying.
-Often feel sick to your stomach (nauseated) or vomit.
-Have trouble sleeping.
-Have headaches or trouble thinking clearly.
To diagnose chronic renal failure is the same listed above on acute renal failure plus:
One way to measure how well your kidneys are working is to figure out your glomelular filtration rate (GFR). The GFR is usually calculated using results from your blood creatinine test. Then the stage of kidney disease is figured out using the GFR. There are five stages of kidney disease, from kidney damage with normal GFR to kidney failure.
There are things you can do to slow or stop the damage to your kidneys. Taking medicines and making some lifestyle changes can help you manage your disease and feel better.
Chronic kidney disease is also called chronic renal failure or chronic renal insufficiency.
Chronic kidney disease may seem to have come on suddenly. But it has been happening bit by bit for many years as a result of damage to your kidneys.
There are five stages of kidney disease, from kidney damage with normal GFR to kidney failure.
Chronic kidney disease is also called chronic renal failure or chronic renal insufficiency.
Chronic kidney disease is caused by damage of the kidneys whether the cause of it be primary a Renal or Kidney problem or a secondary, another disease or disorder that affects the kidneys in doing their job, like hyperglycemia related to a individual with uncontrolled diabetes, for instance.
Your doctor will do blood and urine tests to help find out how well your kidneys are working. These tests can show signs of kidney disease and anemia. (You can get anemia from having damaged kidneys.) You may have other tests to help rule out other problems that could cause your symptoms.
Your doctor will do tests that measure the amount of urea (BUN) and creatinine in your blood. These tests can help measure how well your kidneys are filtering your blood. As your kidney function gets worse, the amount of nitrogen (shown by the BUN test) and creatinine in your blood increases. The level of creatinine in your blood is used to find out the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The GFR is used to show how much kidney function you still have. The GFR is also used to find out the stage of your kidney disease your in if you have it and its to guide decisions about treatment.
Your doctor will ask questions about any past kidney problems. He or she will also ask whether you have a family history of kidney disease and what medicines you take, both prescription and over-the-counter drugs.
You may have a test that lets your doctor look at a picture of your kidneys, such as an ultrasound or CT (Cat Scan of the kidneys). These tests can help your doctor measure the size of your kidneys, estimate blood flow to the kidneys, and see if urine flow is blocked. In some cases, your doctor may take a tiny sample of kidney tissue (biopsy) to help find out what caused your kidney disease.
Treatment for Chronic Kidney Failure:
There are things you can do to slow or stop the damage to your kidneys. Taking medicines and making some lifestyle changes can help you manage your disease, prevent further damage to the kidneys, if their functioning at all and make you possibly feel better.
Very hard, never a complete 100 % resolution. It is like emphysema done by smokers the damage is done or like a heart attack the area of the infarction is heart muscle now scared and the damage is done, so its get the organ to its optimal level of functioning.
Kidney disease is a complex problem. You will probably need to take a number of medicines and have many tests. To stay as healthy as possible, take your medicines just the way your doctor says to and work closely with your doctor. Go to all your appointments for the MD to see a increase in function or decrease in function of your kidney or kidneys you have still functioning to a level. To do that you can’t just go every 6 months especially when first diagnosed with it or with a collapse of an exacerbation of kidney failure in a worse level that brought on new symptoms that brought you to the ER. Lifestyle changes are an important part of your treatment. Taking these steps can help slow down kidney disease and reduce your symptoms. These steps may also help with high blood pressure, diabetes, and other problems that make kidney disease worse or made the kidney disease happen with the secondary diagnosis you had originally for years (ex. Hypertension or Diabetes if not both especially is uncontrolled).
- Follow a diet that is easy on your kidneys. A dietitian can help you make an eating plan with the right amounts of salt (sodium) and protein. You may also need to watch how much fluid you drink each day.
- Make exercise a routine part of your life. Work with your doctor to design an exercise program that is right for you.
- Do not smoke or use tobacco.
- Do not drink alcohol. When kidney function falls below a certain point, it is called Kidney failure. Kidney failure affects your whole body. It can cause serious heart, bone, and brain problems and make you feel very ill. Untreated kidney failure will be life-threatening at some point.
- When you have kidney failure, you will probably have two choices: start dialysis or get a new kidney (transplant). Both of these treatments have risks and benefits. Talk with your doctor to decide which would be best for you.
- Always talk to your doctor before you take any new medicine, including over-the-counter remedies, prescription drugs, vitamins, or herbs. Some of these can hurt your kidneys further.
- In complete renal failure you have 2 choices for Rx.
- 1.)**Dialysis is a process that filters your blood when your kidneys no longer can. It is not a cure, but it can help you feel better and live longer.
- 2.)**Kidney transplant may be the best choice if you are otherwise healthy. With a new kidney, you will feel much better and will be able to live a more normal life. But you may have to wait for a kidney that is a good match for your blood and tissue type. And you will have to take medicine for the rest of your life to keep your body from rejecting the new kidney.
- Making treatment decisions when you are very ill is hard. It is normal to be worried and afraid. Discuss your concerns with your loved ones and your doctor. It may help to visit a dialysis center or transplant center and talk to others who have made these choices.