“In 2020, life expectancy at birth was 77.0 years for the total U.S. population—a decrease of 1.8 years from 78.8 years in 2019 (Figure 1). For males, life expectancy decreased 2.1 years from 76.3 in 2019 to 74.2 in 2020. For females, life expectancy decreased 1.5 years from 81.4 in 2019 to 79.9 in 2020.
7: Diabetes (diabetes mellitus)
- Deaths: 73,831
- Males: 38,324
- Females: 35,507
- Rate: 23.7
- Age-adjusted rate: 21.6
- Percentage of total deaths: 2.93%.
Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose levels are above normal. Most of the food we eat is turned into glucose, or sugar, for our bodies to use for energy. The pancreas, an organ that lies near the stomach, makes a hormone called insulin to help glucose get into the cells of our bodies. When a person has diabetes, the body either does not make enough insulin or cannot use insulin as well as it should. This causes sugar to build up in the blood.
Diabetes can cause serious health complications including heart disease, blindness, kidney failure, and lower-extremity amputations.
Type 1 diabetes, which was previously called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes, may account for about 5% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes, which was previously called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes, may account for about 90-95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes.
The estimated costs of diabetes in the US in 2012 was $245 billion. Direct medical costs accounted for $176 billion of that total and indirect costs such as disability, work loss and premature death accounted for $69 billion.
Warning signs and symptoms of diabetes
People who think they might have diabetes must visit a physician for diagnosis. They may have some or none of the following symptoms:
- Frequent urination
- Excessive thirst
- Unexplained weight loss
- Extreme hunger
- Sudden vision changes
- Tingling or numbness in hands or feet
- Feeling very tired much of the time
- Very dry skin
- Sores that are slow to heal
- More infections than usual.
Nausea, vomiting, or stomach pains may accompany some of these symptoms in the abrupt onset of insulin-dependent diabetes, now called type 1 diabetes.
Can diabetes be prevented?
Researchers are making progress in identifying the exact genetics and “triggers” that predispose some individuals to develop type 1 diabetes, but prevention remains elusive.
A number of studies have shown that regular physical activity can significantly reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity.
There is no known way to prevent type 1 diabetes. Several clinical trials for preventing type 1 diabetes are currently in progress with additional studies being planned.
The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a large prevention study of people at high risk for diabetes, showed that lifestyle intervention that resulted in weight loss and increased physical activity in this population can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes and in some cases return blood glucose levels to within the normal range. Other international studies have shown similar results.
Recent developments on diabetes from MNT news
Diabetes rates in the US ‘leveling off’
A new study from the CDC finds that between 2008 and 2012, diabetes prevalence and incidence rates plateaued, possibly because of slowing obesity rates.
Could a single injection stop diabetes?
Researchers who gave mice with type 2 diabetes the growth factor FGF1, found it reversed diabetes and kept blood glucose within a safe range for 2 days with just one injection.
8: Influenza and pneumonia
- Deaths: 53,826
- Males: 25,401
- Females: 28,425
- Rate: 17.3
- Age-adjusted rate: 15.7
- Percentage of total deaths: 2.13%.
Influenza accounts for 1,532 deaths annually and pneumonia 52,294.
Influenza (flu) is a highly contagious viral infection that is one of the most severe illnesses of the winter season. The reason influenza is more prevalent in the winter is not known; however, data suggest the virus survives and is transmitted better in cold temperatures. Influenza is spread easily from person to person, usually when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
Influenza and pneumonia are the eighth leading cause of death in the US with around 53,826 deaths each year.
A person can have the flu more than once because the virus that causes the disease may belong to different strains of one of three different influenza virus families: A, B or C. Type A viruses tend to have a greater effect on adults, while type B viruses are a greater problem in children.
Influenza can be complicated by pneumonia, which is a serious infection or inflammation of the lungs. The air sacs fill with pus and other liquid, blocking oxygen from reaching the bloodstream. If there is too little oxygen in the blood, the body’s cells cannot work properly, which can lead to death.
Pneumonia can have over 30 different causes, including various chemicals, bacteria, viruses, mycoplasmas and other infectious agents such as pneumocystis (fungi).
Together, pneumonia and influenza cost the US economy more than $40.2 billion in 2005. This figure includes more than $6 billion due to indirect costs (such as time lost from work) and $34.2 billion due to direct costs (such as medical expenses).
Warning signs and symptoms of influenza and pneumonia
Signs and symptoms of influenza include:
- Sore throat
- Nasal congestion
- Muscle aches
- Loss of appetite
Signs and symptoms of pneumonia include:
- Rapid breathing
- Chest pains
- Loss of appetite
- Feeling of weakness or ill health.
Can influenza and pneumonia be prevented?
We basically know what pneumonia is right? If not, on problem it is this: Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus (purulent material), causing cough with phlegm or pus or mucus (color-yellow to green), fatigue, sweating, fever, chills, nausea or vomiting and difficulty breathing. A variety of organisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, can cause pneumonia. Treatment is antibiotics.
Most important, methods of prevention with influenza and pneumonia include:
- Flu shot every year to prevent seasonal influenza
- Vaccination against pneumococcal pneumonia if you are at high risk of getting this type of pneumonia
- Wash hands frequently, especially after blowing nose, going to the bathroom, diapering, and before eating or preparing foods
- Do not smoke. Tobacco damages the lungs’ ability to fight off infection, and smokers have been found to be at a higher risk of getting pneumonia.
- Since pneumonia often follows respiratory infections, be aware of any symptoms that linger for more than a few days
- Good health habits – a healthy diet, rest, regular exercise, etc. – help prevent viruses and respiratory illnesses
- Hib vaccine prevents pneumonia in children from Haemophilus influenzae type B
- A drug called Synagis (palivizumab) can be given to some children younger than 24 months to prevent pneumonia caused by respiratory syncytial virus
- With cancer or HIV patients, a doctor should be consulted about additional ways to prevent pneumonia and other infections.
Recent developments on influenza and pneumonia from MNT news
Goji berries protect against the flu in new study
A study in older mice suggests that, when coupled with the flu vaccine, goji berries offer extra protection against the flu by boosting the immune system and diminishing symptoms.
New vaccine protects against staph-induced pneumonia
A vaccine that targeted surface proteins increased disease severity, whereas one that targeted toxins secreted by the bacteria protected against staph-induced pneumonia.
“The majority of deaths are caused by chronic conditions such as heart disease, cancer, stroke, diabetes, and
Alzheimer’s disease. During the 20 th century these chronic diseases replaced acute infections as the major causes of
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
4: Stroke (cerebrovascular diseases)
- Deaths: 128,932
- Males: 52,335
- Females: 76,597
- Rate: 41.4
- Age-adjusted rate: 37.9
- Percentage of total deaths: 5.12%.
Cerebrovascular diseases are conditions that develop as a result of problems with the blood vessels that supply the brain. Four of the most common types of cerebrovascular disease are:
- Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage that highly leads into a stroke, depending on how quick the hemorrhage is detected with how bad of a hemorrhage it is When a pt comes in the ER and shows symptoms of a TIA or stroke the first thing the MD does within 10 minutes by law is order a CT of the head to see if its a clot or a hemorrhage in the brain that is causing the stroke or TIA to decide his or her pathway of treatment. It would tell the MD decide whether to decide as surgery for a hemorrhage or if a clot start rTPA a con- tinuous IV infusion to treat the clot if the stroke symptoms started in the past 6 (using a vein) or to 8 hours (using an artery) or another treatment would be decided if it was a clot with s/s that past.
- Vascular dementia.
Every year more than 795,000 people in the US have a stroke; risk of having a stroke varies with race, ethnicity, age and geography. Risk of stroke increases with age, yet in 2009 34% of people hospitalized for stroke were younger than 65 years.
The highest death rates from stroke in the US occur in the southeast.
Major warning signs and symptoms of stroke
During a stroke, every second counts. Fast treatment can reduce the brain damage that stroke can cause.
Signs and symptoms of stroke include sudden:13
- Numbness or weakness in the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body
- Confusion, trouble speaking or difficulty understanding speech
- Trouble seeing in one or both eyes
- Trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or lack of coordination
- Severe headache with no known cause.
Call 9-1-1 immediately if any of the above symptoms are experienced.
If you think someone may be having a stroke, act F.A.S.T. and do the following simple test:
- F – Face: ask the person to smile. Does one side of the face droop?
- A – Arms: ask the person to raise both arms. Does one arm drift downward?
- S – Speech: ask the person to repeat a simple phrase. Is their speech slurred or strange?
- T – Time: if you observe any of these signs, call 9-1-1 immediately.
Note the time when any symptoms first appear. Some treatments for stroke only work if given within the first 3 hours after symptoms appear.
Do not drive to the hospital or let someone else drive you. Call an ambulance so that medical personnel can begin life-saving treatment on the way to the emergency room.
How can stroke be prevented?
High blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking are major risk factors for stroke. About half of Americans (49%) have at least one of these three risk factors. Several other medical conditions and unhealthy lifestyle choices can increase your risk for stroke.
Although you cannot control all of your risk factors for stroke, you can take steps to prevent stroke and its complications.12
Stroke prevention measures may include:14,15
- Eating a healthy diet
- Maintaining a healthy weight
- Getting enough exercise
- Not smoking
- Limiting alcohol use
- Checking cholesterol
- Controlling blood pressure
- Managing diabetes
- Managing heart disease
- Taking medicine correctly
- Talking with a health care team.
Recent developments on stroke from MNT news:
Potassium-rich foods could lower stroke risk in older women
Researchers have found that older women whose diets involve potassium-rich foods may be at a reduced risk of stroke and have a greater life expectancy than women consuming less potassium-rich foods.
Stroke risk lowered with a high-protein diet
A diet higher in protein may reduce stroke risk by 20%, while every additional 20 grams of protein consumed each day could reduce stroke risk by 26%, according to new research.
5: Accidents (unintentional injuries)
- Deaths: 126,438
- Males: 79,257
- Females: 47,181
- Rate: 40.6
- Age-adjusted rate: 39.1
- Percentage of total deaths: 5.02%.
Accidents, also referred to as unintentional injuries, are at present the 5th leading cause of death in the US and the leading cause of death for those between the ages 1 to 44. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration say that highway crashes alone have an annual price tag of around $871 billion in economic loss and social harm, with speeding accounting for $210 billion of that figure.
Data for accidents include the following:
- Motor vehicle accidents
- Other land transport accidents
- Water, air and space accidents
- Accidental discharge of firearms
- Accidental drowning and submersion
- Accidental exposure to smoke, fire and flames
- Accidental poisoning and exposure to noxious substances.
Possible prevention measures
Accidents cause loss and suffering to the victims and their loved ones. Methods of safety and prevention can help toward avoiding some forms of unintentional death.
Seat belts have saved an estimated 255,000 lives between 1975 and 2008.
In 2010, 10,228 people were killed in alcohol-impaired driving crashes, accounting for nearly one-third (31%) of all traffic-related deaths in the US.1 In 2010, over 1.4 million drivers were arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol or narcotics.3 That is 1% of the 112 million self-reported episodes of alcohol-impaired driving among US adults each year.4
Information on saving lives and protecting people from violence and injuries can be found on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.
Some facts or statistics show:
Violence or injury ‘responsible for almost 80% of deaths in Americans under 30’
More Americans between the ages 1-30 die due to preventable causes such as car crashes, falls and firearm-related injuries, according to a new report.
How a smartphone could prevent falls
Purdue University researchers have created a smartphone tool – called SmartGait – that can measure a person’s walking gait, which they say could prevent falls.
6: Alzheimer’s disease
- Deaths: 84,974
- Males: 25,677
- Females: 59,297
- Rate: 27.3
- Age-adjusted rate: 24.7
- Percentage of total deaths: 3.37%.
Dementia is an overall term for diseases and conditions characterized by a decline in memory or other thinking skills that affect a person’s ability to perform everyday activities. Dementia is caused by damage to nerve cells in the brain which are called neurons. As a result of the damage, neurons can no longer function normally and may die. This, in turn, can lead to changes in memory, behavior and the ability to think clearly.
Alzheimer’s is the sixth leading cause of death in the US with around 84,974 deaths each year.
For people with Alzheimer’s disease, the damage and death of neurons eventually impair the ability to carry out basic bodily functions such as walking and swallowing.
People in the final stages of the disease are bed-bound and require around-the-clock care. Alzheimer’s is ultimately fatal. Alzheimer’s disease accounts for 60-80% of dementia cases.
An estimated 5.2 million Americans may have Alzheimer’s disease in 2014, including approximately 200,000 individuals younger than age 65 who have younger-onset Alzheimer’s.
Almost two-thirds of American seniors living with Alzheimer’s are women. Of the 5 million people age 65 and older with Alzheimer’s in the US, 3.2 million are women, and 1.8 million are men.
In 2013, 15.5 million family and friends provided 17.7 billion hours of unpaid care to those with Alzheimer’s and other dementias – care valued at $220.2 billion, which is nearly eight times the total revenue of McDonald’s in 2012.
Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most expensive conditions in the nation. In 2014, the direct costs to American society of caring for those with Alzheimer’s will total an estimated $214 billion, including $150 billion in costs to Medicare and Medicaid. Despite these staggering figures, Alzheimer’s will cost an estimated $1.2 trillion (in today’s dollars) in 2050.
A woman’s estimated lifetime risk of developing Alzheimer’s at age 65 is 1 in 6, compared with nearly 1 in 11 for a man. As real a concern as breast cancer is to women’s health, women in their 60s are about twice as likely to develop Alzheimer’s during the rest of their lives as they are to develop breast cancer.
Warning signs and symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease
The following are common signs and symptoms of Alzheimer’s:
- Memory loss that disrupts daily life
- Challenges in planning or solving problems
- Difficulty completing familiar tasks at home, work or in leisure
- Confusion with time or place
- Trouble understanding visual images and spatial relationships
- New problems with words in speaking or writing
- Misplacing things and losing the ability to retrace steps
- Decreased or poor judgment
- Withdrawal from work or social activities
- Changes in mood and personality, including apathy and depression.
Can Alzheimer’s be prevented?
As the exact cause of Alzheimer’s disease is still unknown, there is no way to prevent the condition. However, there are some steps you can take that may help to delay the onset of dementia.26
Reducing your risk of cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease (disease of the heart or blood vessels) has been connected with an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia.
Risk of developing cardiovascular disease, as well as stroke and heart attacks, may be reduced by improving cardiovascular health using steps such as:
- Stopping smoking
- Avoiding large quantities of alcohol
- Eating a healthy balanced diet
- Exercising for at least 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) every week by doing moderate-intensity aerobic activity (such as cycling or fast walking), which improve both your physical and mental health
- Check blood pressure through regular health tests
- If you have diabetes, make sure you keep to the diet and take your medicine.
Staying mentally active
Evidence suggests rates of dementia are lower in mentally, physically and socially active people. It may be possible to reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia by:
- Writing for pleasure
- Learning foreign languages
- Playing musical instruments
- Taking part in adult education courses
- Playing tennis
- Playing golf
- Group sports, such as bowling
Other methods to treat or prevent Alzheimer’s may be revealed as research into the condition continues. At present, there is no evidence to support using the following to prevent dementia:
- Statins (cholesterol-lowering medicines)
- Hormone replacement therapy (when powerful chemicals are taken to replace those that your body no longer produces)
- Vitamin E (found in a variety of foods, such as olive oil, nuts and seeds)
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
Learn more about Alzheimer’s
Recent developments on Alzheimer’s from MNT news
Impaired brain signaling pathway ‘may be a cause of Alzheimer’s’
Mayo Clinic researchers say a brain signaling defect in the Wnt pathway may be a cause of Alzheimer’s, and boosting Wnt signaling could prevent the disease.
Alzheimer’s disease: are we close to finding a cure?
There seems to be more focus than ever on Alzheimer’s research. But how close are scientists to developing effective prevention and treatment strategies for the disease?
“Suicide fell off the list of the 10 leading causes of death in the U.S. in 2020, amid a rise in deaths from chronic liver disease and cirrhosis and the emergence of COVID-19, the latter of which did make the list. Meanwhile, diabetes deaths topped 100,000 for the first time, while deaths from accidents – a category that includes unintentional drug overdoses – topped 200,000 for another record mark.
CDC researchers noted that death rates increased for six of the 10 leading causes of death in the U.S. in 2020, and decreased for only two: cancer and chronic lower respiratory diseases. The death rate for kidney disease stayed the same.”
US News (https://www.usnews.com)
COPD includes Asthma,Bronchitis, especially Emphysema!
2: Cancer (malignant neoplasms)
- Deaths: 576,691
- Males: 302,231
- Females: 274,460
- Rate: 185.1
- Age-adjusted rate: 169.0
- Percentage of total deaths: 22.92%.
Cancer affects men and woman of all ages, races and ethnicities.5 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) estimate the total costs of cancer in 2009 were $216.6 billion: $86.6 billion for direct medical costs and $130.0 billion for indirect mortality costs.
Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. If the spread is not controlled, it can result in death.
In 2014, about 585,720 American are expected to die of cancer – almost 1,600 people per day.
Lung cancer accounts for more deaths than any other cancer in both men and women. Deaths from cancer of the trachea, bronchus and lung stand at 157,017 annually with this figure expected to rise to 159,260 in 2014.
Estimated cancer-related deaths for 2014
Leading causes of death from cancer for males:
- Lung and bronchus – 86,930 (28%)
- Prostate – 29,480 (10%)
- Colon and rectum – 26,270 (8%)
- Pancreas – 20,170 (7%)
- Liver and intrahepatic bile duct – 15,870 (5%)
- Leukemia – 14,040 (5%)
- Esophagus – 12,450 (4%)
- Urinary bladder – 11,170 (4%)
- Non-Hodgkin lymphoma – 10,470 (3%)
- Kidney and renal pelvis – 8,900 (3%).
Leading causes of death from cancer for females:
- Lung and bronchus – 72,330 (26%)
- Breast – 40,000 (15%)
- Colon and rectum – 24,040 (9%)
- Pancreas – 19,420 (7%)
- Ovary – 14,270 (5%)
- Leukemia – 10,050 (4%)
- Uterine corpus – 8,590 (3%)
- Non-Hodgkin lymphoma – 8,520 (3%)
- Liver and intrahepatic bile duct – 7,130 (3%)
- Brain and other nervous system – 6,230 (2%).
Can cancer be prevented?
A substantial proportion of cancers could be prevented. All cancers caused by cigarette smoking and heavy use of alcohol could be prevented completely. In 2014, almost 176,000 of the estimated 585,720 deaths will be caused by tobacco use.
The World Cancer Research Fund has estimated that up to one-third of cancer cases that occur in economically developed countries like the US are related to being overweight, obese, inactive or having poor nutrition. These are all potentially preventable.
Particular cancers are related to infectious agents such as human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) – these may be prevented through behavioral changes and use of protective vaccinations or antibiotic treatments.
Many of the more than 3 million skin cancer cases that are diagnosed annually could be prevented by protecting skin from excessive sun exposure and avoiding indoor tanning.
Screening offers the ability for secondary prevention by detecting cancer early, before symptoms appear. Early detection usually results in less extensive treatment and better outcomes.
Screening for colorectal and cervical cancers can prevent cancer by allowing for detection and removal of pre-cancerous lesions.
Awareness about changes in the body to breasts, skin or testicles may result in detection of tumors at an earlier stage.
Learn more about cancer at the American Cancer Society or Caner treatment.com with so many other places on the internet, to our library, to our MD and much more. All you have to do is research, take the time.
3: Chronic lower respiratory disease
- Deaths: 142,943
- Males: 67,521
- Females: 75,422
- Rate: 45.9
- Age-adjusted rate: 42.5
- Percentage of total deaths: 5.68%.
Chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) is a collection of lung diseases that cause airflow blockage and breathing-related issues, including primarily chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but also bronchitis, emphysema (is due to alot of smokers) and asthma.
Bronchitis (chronic) has active and inactive stages where most get it through their lifetime. How often has depending factors. Bronchitis may be either acute or chronic. Often developing from a cold or other respiratory infection, acute bronchitis is very common.
*Chronic bronchitis, a more serious condition, is a constant irritation or inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes, often due to smoking.
*Acute bronchitis usually improves within a few days without lasting effects, although you may continue to cough for weeks. However, if you have repeated bouts of bronchitis, you may have chronic bronchitis, which requires medical attention.
A study released by The American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) estimated that 16.4 million days of work were lost annually because of COPD, and total absenteeism costs were $3.9 billion. Of the medical costs, 18% was paid for by private insurance, 51% by Medicare, and 25% by Medicaid. National medical costs are projected to increase from $32.1 billion in 2010 to $49.0 billion in 2020.8,9
Major warning signs and symptoms of COPD
Signs and symptoms of COPD may include:
- Increased breathlessness when active
- A persistent cough with phlegm
- Frequent chest infections.
How can COPD be prevented?
In the US, tobacco smoke is a KEY FACTOR in the development and progression of COPD=EMPHYSEMA, although exposure to air pollutants in the home and workplace, genetic factors, and respiratory infections also play a role.7
Smoking is a primary risk factor of COPD since it causes primarily emphysema, and approximately 80% of COPD deaths can be attributed to smoking. Emphysema damages the tissue of the lung called alveoli causing them to expand and not have the elasticity they need to exchange 0xygen for carbon dioxide when we breath. Most importantly when the alveoli looses the elasticity it can’t be fixed unless you need a new lung and are a candidate for one. So regular daily smokers why don’t you just drink poison? Best is to not smoke at all but at least do it once in a awhile. Abusing anything usually turns into injury (For example take alcohol to simply verbally or physically abusing and doing it over and over again which makes it easier to do which isn’t right to do at all. Abuse is just used as an exampte not that it is right at all, I reenforce)
To prevent COPD:
- Quit smoking
- Avoid secondhand smoke
- Avoid air pollution
- Avoid chemical fumes
- Avoid dust
The FDA have approved the once-daily inhaled drug olodaterol (brand name Striverdi Respimat), a long-acting beta-agonist, for the treatment of airflow obstruction in COPD patients.
Doctors are missing chances to diagnose COPD early in up to 85% of cases
COPD is a progressive disease that causes irreversible damage to the lungs. Now, a new study reveals that doctors are missing chances to diagnose the condition early.
If this correct than that gives us as people not to depend just on the MD but to take care of ourselves in particular on preventative measures to give you higher odds that you will not even have to deal with the diagnosis at all.
“Heart disease is the leading cause of deathTrusted Source for both men and women. This is the case in the U.S. and worldwide. More than half of all people who die due to heart disease are men. Medical professionals use the term heart disease to describe several conditions. Many of these conditions relate to the buildup of plaque in the walls of the arteries. As the plaque develops, the arteries narrow. This makes it difficult for blood to flow around the body and increases the risk of heart attack or stroke. It can also give rise to angina, arrythmias, and heart failure. To reduce the risk of dying from heart disease, a person can protect their heart health by adopting a healthful diet and getting regular exercise.”
Over the years news has been filled with stories about Ebola, breast cancer and Methicillin Resistant Staph Aureus (MRSA) which all gets a lot of press today. Would it surprise you to know that neither makes the list of the 10 deadliest diseases in the USA? Even more surprising, perhaps, is that several of the deadliest diseases, including the number one killer in the world, are at least partially preventable. It is right under are nose people but it doesn’t seem to be a topic of discussion in SCHOOL, you when young, taught at that grade level for the child to comprehend. It is not even a standard topic in college to pass on health education which obviously our country needs based on the statistics of disease and Obesity alone which causes a lot of the diseases after being obese for a long period of time which could have been prevented but for millions of people it is not the priority over food. Why? It takes an individual to want to make change in their life either drastically or gradually depending on how much to you need to or desire to lose weight. The people that surround you frequently and that are important to you helps if they are supporting that cause since it helps first you and all the people around you; like your children and even significant other to other family members (mom, close cousin, etc…) and even friends. If we all made this a cause our health care system would end up being a lot more affordable for all but we the society make it difficult with too many staying unhealthy. Wake up Americans take care of yourself to help yourself and all around you. Where a person lives, having the access to preventive care, and the quality of healthcare provided in a community are all factors that can either benefit or put people in that community into the risk of obesity.
Surprising news is that we, due to not regarding our health as a priority in many areas of the USA show the following statistics:
Of all the causes of death in the US, the leading top 10 causes account for nearly 75% of all deaths and the top 3 causes account for over 50% of all deaths in the country, with the main culprits remaining relatively consistent for at least the last five years.
The top leading 10 causes of death are:
- Heart disease (which can be prevented)
- Cancer (malignant neoplasms). Some cancers without question can be prevented (lung CA due to smoking)
- Chronic lower respiratory disease (same as above if we are referring to emphysema and its due to smoking)
- Stroke (cerebrovascular diseases) (this also in many cases can be prevented) Check out Monday’s article.
- Accidents (unintentional injuries)
- Alzheimer’s disease
- Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) If its diabetes II; usually due to obesity and diet.
- Influenza and pneumonia
- Kidney disease (nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and nephrosis)
- Suicide (intentional self-harm).
1.)Heart Disease shows:
The #1 leading disease in the US!
- Deaths: 596,577
- Males: 308,398
- Females: 288,179
- Rate: 191.5
- Age-adjusted rate: 173.7
- Percentage of total deaths: 23.71%.
Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the US and also the leading cause of death worldwide. More than half of the deaths that occur as a result of heart disease are in men.
Coronary heart disease costs the US $108.9 billion each year and is the most common type of heart disease.3
Heart disease is a term used to describe several problems related to plaque buildup in the walls of the arteries. Ending line clogging up the vessels closing up the pipelines our blood is carried through (vessels) to give oxygen to our blood tissues with taking carbon dioxide to the lungs for more 02 when its used up by our cells who carry oxygen to our tissues (02 is the fuel for our body to stay alive).
As the plaque builds up, the arteries narrow, making it more difficult for blood to flow and creating a risk for heart attack or stroke due to ischemia (Lack of oxygen to the tissues. If its lack of 02 to the heart angina to an MI if its the brain a TIA-transient ischemic attack or worse a CVA-stroke). Remember, prevention=protection is the first step so you don’t get this problem at all. Ending line the better you take care of yourself the higher the odds you will not get this problem.
How can you take this step in PREVENTION;
Protecting the heart
Lowering blood pressure and cholesterol can significantly lower heart disease risk.
- Follow instructions on medication usage if your already on it
- Make sure diet is low in salt, fat, saturated fat and cholesterol and high in fresh fruits and vegetables
- It is recommended that exercise in the form of a brisk 10 minute walk takes place 3 times a day, 5 days a week
- Avoid excessive alcohol use
- Quit smoking
- All steps listed above if you follow has even caused patients to stop medications completely because the changes listed above caused the problem in high statistics with the individual having no heredity.
“Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder in which people interpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions, and extremely disordered thinking and behavior that impairs daily functioning, and can be disabling.
People with schizophrenia require lifelong treatment. Early treatment may help get symptoms under control before serious complications develop and may help improve the long-term outlook.”.
Schizophrenia is a serious disorder which effects how a person thinks, feels and acts. A individual with this diagnosis may have difficulty distinguishing between what is real and what is imaginary; may be unresponsive or withdrawn; and may have difficulty expressing normal emotions in social situations. The person with schizophrenia may have difficulty expressing normal emotions in social situations.
Contrary to public perception, schizophrenia is not split personality or multiple ones. The vast majority of people with schizophrenia are not violent and do not pose a danger to others; if anyone they could put a danger to is themselves without supervision around. Schizophrenia is not caused by childhood experiences, poor parenting, lack of will power. The signs and symptoms of the disease are not the same for each person.
The cause of schizophrenia is still not clear. Some theories about the cause of this disease include: genetics (heredity), biology (the imbalance in the brain’s chemistry); and/or possible viral infections and immune disorders.
Another cause can be genetics (heredity). Scientists recognize that the disorder tends to run in families and a person inherits to develop the disease. Schizophrenia may also be triggered by environmental events like viral infections or highly stressful situations or a combination of both. Similar to some other genetically-related illnesses, schizophrenia appears when the body undergoes hormonal and physical changes, like those that occur during puberty in the teen and young adult years.
Substance use can be another cause. Some studies have suggested that taking mind-altering drugs during teen years and young adulthood can increase the risk of schizophrenia. A growing body of evidence indicates that smoking marijuana increases the risk of psychotic incidents and the risk of ongoing psychotic experiences. The younger and more frequent the use, the greater the risk. Another study has found that smoking marijuana led to earlier onset of schizophrenia and often preceded the manifestation of the illness.
Another etiology deals with chemistry. Genetics help to determine huw the brain uses certain chemicals. People with schitzophrenia have a chemical imbalance of brain chemicals (serotonin and dopamine) which are neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters allow nerve cells in the brain that send messages to each nerve cell. The brain is made up of nerve cells, called neurons, and chemicals, called neurotransmitters. An imbalance of one neurotransmitter, dopamine, is thought to cause the symptoms of schizophrenia. … The “dopamine hypothesis” has been the main theory regarding the cause of the symptoms of schizophrenia. Dopamine is produced in the dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain, the substantia nigra pars compacta, and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. With the imbalance these chemicals affects the way a person’s brain reacts to stimuli—which explains why a person with schizophrenia may be overwhelmed by sensory information (Ex. loud music or bright lights) which other people can easily handle. This problem in processing different sounds, sights, smells and tastes can also lead to hallucinations or delusions.
Looking for a moment at Dopamine in different areas of the brain in both low and high amounts see how it effects brain thinking to better understand schizophrenia.
Dopamine in cognition:
Dopamine in the frontal lobes of the brain controls the flow of information from other areas of the brain. Disorders of dopamine in this region lead to decline in neurocognitive functions, especially memory, attention, and problem-solving.
D1 receptors and D4 receptors are responsible for the cognitive-enhancing effects of dopamine. Some of the antipsychotic medications used in conditions like schizophrenia act as dopamine antagonists. Older, so-called “typical” antipsychotics most commonly act on D2 receptors, while the atypical drugs also act on D1, D3 and D4 receptors.
Dopamine in movement
A part of the brain called the basal ganglia regulates movement. Basal ganglia in turn depend on a certain amount of dopamine to function at peak efficiency. The action of dopamine occurs via dopamine receptors, D1-5.
Dopamine reduces the influence of the indirect pathway, and increases the actions of the direct pathway within the basal ganglia. When there is a deficiency in dopamine in the brain, movements may become delayed and uncoordinated. On the flip side, if there is an excess of dopamine, the brain causes the body to make unnecessary movements, such as repetitive tics.
Dopamine in pleasure reward seeking behavior
Dopamine is the chemical that mediates pleasure in the brain. It is released during pleasurable situations and stimulates one to seek out the pleasurable activity or occupation. This means food, sex, and several drugs of abuse are also stimulants of dopamine release in the brain, particularly in areas such as the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex.
Dopamine and addiction
Cocaine and amphetamines inhibit the re-uptake of dopamine. Cocaine is a dopamine transporter blocker that competitively inhibits dopamine uptake to increase the presence of dopamine.
Amphetamine increases the concentration of dopamine in the synaptic gap, but by a different mechanism. Amphetamines are similar in structure to dopamine, and so can enter the presynaptic neuron via its dopamine transporters. By entering, amphetamines force dopamine molecules out of their storage vesicles. By increasing presence of dopamine both these lead to increased pleasurable feelings and addiction.
Dopamine in memory
Levels of dopamine in the brain, especially the prefrontal cortex, help in improved working memory. However, this is a delicate balance and as levels increase or decrease to abnormal levels, memory suffers.
Dopamine in attention
Dopamine helps in focus and attention. Vision helps a dopamine response in the brain and this in turn helps one to focus and direct their attention. Dopamine may be responsible for determining what stays in the short term memory based on an imagined response to certain information. Reduced dopamine concentrations in the prefrontal cortex are thought to contribute to attention deficit disorder.
Dopamine is affected in schizophrenia, just look at the functions of the chemical and the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia.
Signs and symptoms of schizophrenia:
–Deficits in cognitive abilities are widely recognized as a core feature of this disease. The deficits impacting the cognitive function are found in a large number of areas: working memory, long-term memory,verbaldeclarative memory, semantic processing, episodic memory, attention, learning (particularly verbal learning). Deficits in verbal memory are the most pronounced in individuals with schizophrenia, and are not accounted for by deficit in attention. Verbal memory impairment has been linked to a decreased ability in individuals with schizophrenia to semantically encode (process information relating to meaning), which is cited as a cause for another known deficit in long-term memory. When given a list of words, healthy individuals remember positive words more frequently (known as the Pollyanna principle); however, individuals with schizophrenia tend to remember all words equally regardless of their connotations, suggesting that the experience of anhedonia impairs the semantic encoding of the words. These deficits have been found in individuals before the onset of the illness to some some extent and varying degrees.
-Disorganized or catatonic behavior
TREATMENT FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA:
There is no cure for schizophrenia, but it can be treated and managed in several ways.
-Psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy and assertive community treatment and supportive therapy.
– Self-management strategies and education