Archive | August 2019

QUOTE FOR FRIDAY:

“Muscle atrophy is when muscles waste away. The main reason for muscle wasting is a lack of physical activity. This can happen when a disease or injury makes it difficult or impossible for you to move an arm or leg. A symptom of atrophied muscles is an arm that appears smaller, but not shorter, than the other arm.”

Healthline

QUOTE FOR THURSDAY:

“What causes SMA? Chromosome 5 SMA is caused by a deficiency of a motor neuron protein called SMN, for “survival of motor neuron.” This protein, as its name implies, seems to be necessary for normal motor neuron function. Its deficiency is caused by genetic flaws (mutations) on chromosome 5 in a gene called SMN1.”
 
Spinal Muscular Atrophy | Muscular Dystrophy Association
https://www.mda.org/disease/spinal-muscular-atrophy

QUOTE FOR WEDNESDAY:

“Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic disease affecting the part of the nervous system that controls voluntary muscle movement.”

SMA (spinal muscular atrophy) is a disease that robs people of physical strength by affecting the motor nerve cells in the spinal cord, taking away the ability to walk, eat, or breathe. It is the number one genetic cause of death for infants.

SMA affects approximately 1 in 11,000 babies, and about 1 in every 50 Americans is a genetic carrier. SMA can affect any race or gender.”

SMAIreland (smaireland.com)

QUOTE FOR MONDAY:

Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening condition caused by the body’s response to an infection. The body normally releases chemicals into the bloodstream to fight an infection. Sepsis occurs when the body’s response to these chemicals is out of balance, triggering changes that can damage multiple organ systems.

MAYO CLINIC

What is sepsis/SIRS actually?

   

Sepsis is a potentially dangerous or life-threatening medical condition, found in association with a known or suspected infection (usually caused by but not limited to bacteria).

     1.What causes sepsis?

In sepsis the infection has spread from a local area of the body with spreading into a systemic infection, this means the infection is in the blood stream now.  So you have gone from a infection in one spot (local) now in another area of the body, the blood stream (now a systemic infection), that goes to every tissue of our body bringing the infection to effect anywhere in our body from 2 or several organs in the body to death if not treated.

Bacterial infections are the most common cause of sepsis. Sepsis can also be caused by fungal, parasitic, or viral infections. The source of the infection can be any of a number of places throughout the body. Common sites and types of infection that can lead to sepsis include:

  • The abdomen—An inflammation of the appendix (appendicitis), bowel problems, infection of the abdominal cavity (peritonitis), and gallbladder or liver infections.  If spreads the peritoneum (The serous membrane lining the cavity of the abdomen and covering the abdominal organs.)  Through the membrane the infection spreads to a abdominal organ or organs.
  • The central nervous system—Inflammation or infections of the brain or the spinal cord, easy to get into the bloodstream.
  • The lungs—Infections such as pneumonia, our lungs give our blood oxygen so easy for the infection to spread into our bloodstream.
  • The skin—Bacteria can enter skin through wounds or skin inflammations, or through the openings made with intravenous (IV) catheters (tubes inserted into the body to administer or drain fluids). Conditions such as cellulitis (inflammation of the skin’s connective tissue) can cause sepsis.
  • The urinary tract (kidneys or bladder)—Urinary tract infections are especially likely if the patient has a urinary catheter to drain urine.

    Sepsis can strike anyone, but their are those at particular risk.

Sepsis has to show signs and symptoms to fulfill at least two of the following criteria of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS):

  • elevated heart rate (tachycardia) >90 beats per minute at rest, your heart is fighting this infection.
  • body temperature either high (>100.4 F or 38 C) usually the case at first or low (<96.8 F or 36 C), the body now
  • increased respiratory rate of >20 breaths per minute or a reduced PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood level)
  • abnormal white blood cell count (>12,000 cells/µL or <4,000 cells/µL or >10% bands [an immature type of white blood cell])

     2.Who is at risk for sepsis?

  • People with weakened immune systems
  • Patients who are in the hospital
  • People with pre-existing infections or medical conditions
  • People with severe injuries, such as large burns or bullet wounds
  • People with a genetic tendency for sepsis
  • The very old or very young.

    3.What are the symptoms of sepsis?

  • Decreased urine output
  • Fast heart rate
  • Fever
  • Or the opposite Hypothermia (very low body temperature)
  • Shaking
  • Chills
  • Warm skin or a skin rash
  • Confusion or delirium
  • Hyperventilation (rapid breathing)A person may have sepsis if he or she has:

    4.How is sepsis diagnosed?

  • A high or low white blood cell count
  • A low platelet count
  • Acidosis (too much acid in the blood); in the hospital what is checked is lactic acid blood level.
  • A blood culture that is positive for bacteria
  • Abnormal kidney or liver functionm

     5.TREATMENT:

  • Patients who meet the above criteria on symtoms have sepsis and are also termed septic.  In acute hospitals if 2 of these infections are present in the patient a “Septic Code” is called to get pt on antibiotics 2 usually that include Vancomycin, with IVFs started continuously, blood tests including bacterial culture x2, to the ICU where closely monitored, on telemetry.  Keep the pt continuously clean.
  • The most important intervention in sepsis is quick diagnosis and prompt treatment. Patients diagnosed with severe sepsis are usually placed in the intensive care unit (ICU) of the hospital for special treatment. The doctor will first try to identify the source and the type of infection, and then administer antibiotics to treat the infection. (Note: antibiotics are ineffective against infections caused by viruses; if anything what is used is antiviral medications.)
  • The doctor also administers IV fluids to prevent blood pressure from dropping too low. In some cases, vasopressor medications (which constrict blood vessels) are needed to achieve an adequate blood pressure. Some patients are given new drug therapies, such as activated protein C (APC). And finally, if organ failures occur, appropriate supportive care is provided (for example, dialysis for kidney failure, mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure, etc.).
  • Commonly what is used when initially sepsis is diagnosed is Vancomycin with other antibiotics like Imipenum, Cefepime, and others depending on what the blood culture results show as the microorganism.  Antibiotics with Sepsis and SIRS is caused by a bacterial infection (many times it is).

 

QUOTE FOR THE WEEKEND:

“To better understand diabetes, it helps to know more about how the body uses food for energy (a process called metabolism). Your body is made up of millions of cells. To make energy, the cells need food in a very simple form of sugar.  This is done through digestion and than released into the blood … Without insulin, or the “key,” sugar cannot get into the body’s cells for use as energy.”

Cleveland Clinic

QUOTE FOR FRIDAY:

“Interestingly, research has found that the eye’s “rod” cells, responsible for certain important visual functions that are more likely to degrade with age than the “cone” cells, which are responsible for visual acuity and color vision. The health of rod cells is also more dependent on environmental factors such as nutrition, smoking, and excessive sun exposure, all of which we can control or choose, to some extent.”

American Academy of Opthamology

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Eye health for those at age 60 and over!

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Women-Higher Risk for Some Eye Diseases

Women are more likely than men to have glaucoma and women are also more likely to be visually impaired or blind due to glaucoma. Also, women are 24 percent less likely to be treated for glaucoma. Cataract is somewhat more common in women, as well. Women should be sure to follow the Academy’s screening guidelines and adhere to their Eye M.D.’s follow-up appointment recommendations and treatment plans.

Low Vision

The term low vision describes vision loss that makes daily tasks difficult. Normal aging of the eye does not lead to low vision; it is a result of eye diseases, injuries or both. Low vision symptoms nclude loss of central and/or peripheral (side) vision, blurred or hazy vision or night blindness. A person may have trouble recognizing faces, reading, driving and shopping. If you experience any of these problems, it is important to see your Eye M.D., who will check for and treat any underlying conditions and advise on low vision resources and low vision aids and devices to help with reading and other daily tasks. Most people with low vision need brighter lighting in their living areas.

Avoid Falls and Related Eye Injuries

About half of all eye injuries occur in or around the home, most often during improvement projects (44 percent). The good news is that nearly all eye injuries can be prevented by using protective eyewear, so every household needs to have at least one pair of certified safety glasses on hand.

It’s also important to reduce the risk of falls, which become more likely as we age, due to changes in vision and balance. Consider taking these safety steps around the home to diminish the risks of injuring your eyes:

  • Make sure that rugs and shower/bath/tub mats are slip-proof.
  • Secure railings so that they are not loose.
  • Cushion sharp corners and edges of furnishings and home fixtures.

Systemic health problems

Systemic health problems like high blood pressure and diabetes that may be diagnosed or become more problematic in midlife can also affect eye health. One warning sign of both high blood pressure and diabetes is when the ability to see clearly changes frequently. Be sure to keep your Eye M.D. informed about your health conditions and use of medications and nutritional supplements, as well as your exercise, eating, sleeping and other lifestyle choices.

Exercise

Our eyes need good blood circulation and oxygen intake, and both are stimulated by regular exercise. Regular exercise also helps keep our weight in the normal range, which reduces the risk of diabetes and of diabetic retinopathy. Gentler exercise, including walking, yoga, tai chi, or stretching and breathing, can also be effective ways to keep healthy. Remember to use sun safety and protective eyewear when enjoying sports and recreation.

Sleep

As we sleep, our eyes enjoy continuous lubrication. Also during sleep the eyes clear out irritants such as dust, allergens, or smoke that may have accumulated during the day.

Some research suggests that light-sensitive cells in the eye are important to our ability to regulate our wake-sleep cycles. This becomes more crucial as we age, when more people have problems with insomnia. While it’s important that we protect our eyes from over-exposure to UV light, our eyes also need exposure to some natural light every day to help maintain normal sleep-wake cycles.

QUOTE FOR THURSDAY:

“Incorporate your eye health as part of your regular health check-ups. Having a comprehensive dilated eye exam is one of the best things you can do to make sure that you’re seeing the best you can and that you’re keeping your eyes healthy.
 
Millions of people have problems with their vision every year. Some of these problems can cause permanent vision loss and even blindness, while others are common problems that can be easily corrected with glasses or contact lenses.”
National Eye Institute

Children eye health and safety month awareness!

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Children eye health and safety month

August Is Children’s Eye Health and Safety Month!

It’s almost back-to-school time and are you prepared with your child’s enrollment forms, orientation schedules, and immunizations–but what about their eyes?

August is Children’s Eye Health and Safety Month—a great signal for you to get your child’s eyes checked before school starts.

Let’s Talk Eye Safety:

Use this month to discuss the importance of eye safety with your children.

More than 12 million children suffer from vision impairment, and eye injuries are one of the leading causes of vision loss in children*. There are an estimated 42,000 sports-related eye injuries each year and the majority of them happen to children.

Children should:

  • Wear protective eyewear while participating in sports or recreational activities
  • Play with are age-appropriate toys. Avoid toys with sharp or protruding parts

One of the best ways to ensure your child keeps his/her good vision throughout life is to set a good health example.

Talk to your child’s pediatrician if you suspect your child has any of the eye diseases below:

-Amblyopia (lazy eye) – also known as lazy eye, is a vision development disorder in which an eye fails to achieve normal visual acuity, even with prescription eyeglasses or contact lenses. Amblyopia begins during infancy and early childhood. In most cases, only one eye is affected. However, a common cause of amblyopia is strabismus. So if you notice your baby or young child has crossed eyes or some other apparent eye misalignment, schedule an appointment for a children’s eye exam immediately — preferably with an optometrist or ophthalmologist who specializes in children’s vision.

Another clue that your child may have amblyopia is if he or she cries or fusses when you cover one eye.

You can try this simple screening test at home by simply covering and uncovering your child’s eyes (one eye at a time) when he or she is performing a visual task, such as watching television.

-Strabismus (crossed eyes) – Strabismus is a condition that interferes with binocular vision because it prevents a person from directing both eyes simultaneously towards the same fixation point; the eyes do not properly align with each other. Heterotropia is a medical synonym for the condition. Colloquial terms for strabismus include “cross-eye”, “wall-eye”, and a “cast of the eye”. Strabismus in children does not go away on its own and strabismus in adults is treatable, so strabismus treatment is necessary.

-Ptosis (drooping of the eyelid) – Ptosis” is the medical term for a drooping upper eyelid. Eyelid drooping can sometimes affect your vision if it’s severe. Ptosis isn’t a disease. It’s actually a symptom of a condition that you should seek treatment for. Many things can cause ptosis. Some causes being stroke, diabetic neuropathy, myasthenia gravis, muscular dystrophy, botulism, brain aneurysm, adult brain tumor, pituitary cancer, & necrotizing vaculitis. An eye doctor will diagnose ptosis by carefully examining the eyelids. He or she will take detailed measurements of the height of the eyelids and will assess the strength of the eyelid muscles.Surgery can be an effective treatment for ptosis in both children and adult, improving vision as well as cosmetic appearance. It is very important that children with ptosis have regular ophthalmic examinations early in life to monitor their vision and prevent severe vision loss from untreated amblyopia..

-Color deficiency (color blindness) Two of the most common inherited forms of color blindness are protanopia and deuteranopia. Color vision deficiency (sometimes called color blindness) represents a group of conditions that affect the perception of color. Red-green color vision defects are the most common form of color vision deficiency which is in about 8 percent and 0.5 percent of females of European (northern) ancestry. Affected individuals have trouble distinguishing between some shades of red, yellow, and green. Blue-yellow color vision defects (also called tritan defects), which are rarer, cause problems with differentiating shades of blue and green and cause difficulty distinguishing dark blue from black. These two forms of color vision deficiency disrupt color perception but do not affect the sharpness of vision (visual acuity).

A less common and more severe form of color vision deficiency called blue cone monochromacy causes very poor visual acuity and severely reduced color vision. Affected individuals have additional vision problems, which can include increased sensitivity to light (photophobia), involuntary back-and-forth eye movements (nystagmus), and nearsightedness (myopia). Blue cone monochromacy is sometimes considered to be a form of achromatopsia, a disorder characterized by a partial or total lack of color vision with other vision problems

-Refractive errors (nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism) – The most common types of refractive errors are myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, and astigmatism. Myopia (nearsightedness) is a condition where objects up close appear clearly, while objects far away appear blurry. With myopia, light comes to focus in front of the retina instead of on the retina.

What are refractive errors?

Refractive errors occur when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the retina. The length of the eyeball (longer or shorter), changes in the shape of the cornea, or aging of the lens can cause refractive errors.

What is refraction?

Refraction is the bending of light as it passes through one object to another. Vision occurs when light rays are bent (refracted) as they pass through the cornea and the lens. The light is then focused on the retina. The retina converts the light-rays into messages that are sent through the optic nerve to the brain. The brain interprets these messages into the images we see.

Frequently Asked Questions about Refractive Errors

What are the different types of refractive errors?

The most common types of refractive errors are myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, and astigmatism.

Myopia (nearsightedness) is a condition where objects up close appear clearly, while objects far away appear blurry. With myopia, light comes to focus in front of the retina instead of on the retina.

Hyperopia (farsightedness) is a common type of refractive error where distant objects may be seen more clearly than objects that are near. However, people experience hyperopia differently. Some people may not notice any problems with their vision, especially when they are young. For people with significant hyperopia, vision can be blurry for objects at any distance, near or far.

Astigmatism is a condition in which the eye does not focus light evenly onto the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. This can cause images to appear blurry and stretched out.

Presbyopia is an age-related condition in which the ability to focus up close becomes more difficult. As the eye ages, the lens can no longer change shape enough to allow the eye to focus close objects clearly.

Risk Factors

Who is at risk for refractive errors?

Presbyopia affects most adults over age 35. Other refractive errors can affect both children and adults. Individuals that have parents with certain refractive errors may be more likely to get one or more refractive errors.

Symptoms and Detection

What are the signs and symptoms of refractive errors?

Blurred vision is the most common symptom of refractive errors. Other symptoms may include:

  • Double vision
  • Haziness
  • Glare or halos around bright lights
  • Squinting
  • Headaches
  • Eye strain
  • How refractive errors are diagnosed?

  • An eye care professional can diagnose refractive errors during a comprehensive dilated eye examination. People with a refractive error often visit their eye care professional with complaints of visual discomfort or blurred vision. However, some people don’t know they aren’t seeing as clearly as they could.
  • How are refractive errors treated?

  • Eyeglasses are the simplest and safest way to correct refractive errors. Your eye care professional can prescribe appropriate lenses to correct your refractive error and give you optimal vision.If you have certain eye conditions you may not be able to wear contact lenses. Discuss this with your eye care professional.
  • Refractive Surgery aims to change the shape of the cornea permanently. This change in eye shape restores the focusing power of the eye by allowing the light rays to focus precisely on the retina for improved vision. There are many types of refractive surgeries. Your eye care professional can help you decide if surgery is an option for you.
  • Contact Lenses work by becoming the first refractive surface for light rays entering the eye, causing a more precise refraction or focus. In many cases, contact lenses provide clearer vision, a wider field of vision, and greater comfort. They are a safe and effective option if fitted and used properly. It is very important to wash your hands and clean your lenses as instructed in order to reduce the risk of infection.
  • Refractive errors can be corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery