Archive | September 2018

QUOTE FOR WEEKEND:

“A healthy diet is one of the best weapons you have to fight cardiovascular disease. The food you eat (and the amount) can affect other controllable risk factors: cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes and overweight. Choose nutrient-rich foods — which have vitamins, minerals, fiber and other nutrients but are lower in calories — over nutrient-poor foods.”

American Heart Association

World Heart Day

If you have been reading regularly on this blog than you know this day  is dedicated everywhere for the health topic “WORLD HEART DAY”.

Governments and non-government organizations celebrate and promote World Heart Day with activities such as fun runs, public talks, concerts, and sporting events. The World Heart Federation organizes awareness events in more than 100 countries. They include:

  • Health checks.
  • Sports events, including walks, runs and fitness sessions.
  • Public talks and science forums
  • Stage shows and concerts.
  • Exhibitions.

The World Heart Foundation organizes World Heart Day, an international campaign held on September 29 to inform people about cardiovascular diseases.

Cardiovascular Diseases:

Coronary heart disease is a common term for the buildup of plaque in the heart’s arteries that could lead to heart attack. But what about coronary artery disease? Is there a difference?

The short answer is often no — health professionals frequently use the terms interchangeably.

However, coronary heart disease , or CHD, is actually a result of coronary artery disease, or CAD, said Edward A. Fisher, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., an American Heart Association volunteer who is the Leon H. Charney Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine and also of the Marc and Ruti Bell Vascular Biology and Disease Program at the NYU School of Medicine.

Coronary heart disease is a common term for the buildup of plaque in the heart’s arteries that could lead to heart attack. But what about coronary artery disease? Is there a difference?

The short answer is often no — health professionals frequently use the terms interchangeably.

However, coronary heart disease , or CHD, is actually a result of coronary artery disease, or CAD, said Edward A. Fisher, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., an American Heart Association volunteer who is the Leon H. Charney Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine and also of the Marc and Ruti Bell Vascular Biology and Disease Program at the NYU School of Medicine.

With coronary artery disease, plaque first grows within the walls of the coronary arteries until the blood flow to the heart’s muscle is limited. View an illustration of coronary arteries. This is also called ischemia. It may be chronic, narrowing of the coronary artery over time and limiting of the blood supply to part of the muscle. Or it can be acute, resulting from a sudden rupture of a plaque and formation of a thrombus or blood clot.

The traditional risk factors for coronary artery disease are high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, family history, diabetes, smoking, being post-menopausal for women and being older than 45 for men, according to Fisher. Obesity may also be a risk factor.

“Coronary artery disease begins in childhood, so that by the teenage years, there is evidence that plaques that will stay with us for life are formed in most people,” said Fisher, who is former editor of the American Heart Association journal, ATVB. “Preventive measures instituted early are thought to have greater lifetime benefits. Healthy lifestyles will delay the progression of CAD, and there is hope that CAD can be regressed before it causes CHD.”

Living a healthy lifestyle that incorporates good nutrition, weight management and getting plenty of physical activity can play a big role in avoiding CAD.

“Coronary artery disease is preventable,” agreed Johnny Lee, M.D., president of New York Heart Associates, and an American Heart Association volunteer. “Typical warning signs are chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations and even fatigue.”

What is a “widow maker”?  Well for starters, this is the deadliest heart attack.  The symptoms you need to know to possibly prevent the results of this widow maker.  It occurs when there is a complete blockage of the left artery feeding the heart with blood.  This causes a cut off of oxygen supply  to one of the large parts of the heart muscle, which can cause it to stop beating, causing you to die.

A heart attack is when one of the coronary arteries becomes blocked.

The heart muscle is then robbed of vital oxygenated blood, which if left untreated, can cause the heart muscle to begin to die.

A heart attack is a life-threatening emergency.

A widow maker heart attack is caused when the LAD artery becomes blocked.

It occurs when there’s a complete blockage of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery, one of two main arteries that brings OXYGENATED blood to the heart=FOOD TO THE HEART MUSCLE (O2).

When it is blocked due to a build up of plaque it is most often deadly, hence the name “widow maker”.  How to we get plaque build up?

Cholesterol plaques can be the cause of heart disease. Plaques begin in artery walls and grow over years. The growth of cholesterol!  The plaques slowly blocks blood flow in the arteries. Worse, a cholesterol plaque can suddenly rupture. The sudden blood clot that forms over the rupture then causes a heart attack or stroke.

Blocked arteries caused by plaque buildup and blood clots are the leading cause of death in the U.S. Reducing cholesterol and other risk factors can help prevent cholesterol plaques from forming. Occasionally, it can even reverse some plaque buildup.

“When the main artery down the front of the heart (LAD) is totally blocked or has a critical blockage, right at the beginning of the vessel, it is known as the Widow Maker. (The medical term for this is a proximal LAD lesion). No one knows exactly who came up with the term, but the reason they did is likely that if that artery is blocked right at the beginning of its course, then the whole artery after it goes down. This essentially means that the whole front wall of the heart goes down. As far as heart attacks go, this is a big one, with big consequences if not dealt with appropriately and FAST!”

myheart.net/Dr. Ahmed – an Interventional Cardiologist and Director of Structural Heart Disease at Princeton-Baptist Hospital.

Symptoms:

A widow maker heart attack has the same symptoms as any other heart attack.

They can be difficult to spot for sure, because they can vary from person to person.

The most common signs include:

  • chest pain, tightness, heaviness, pain or a burning feeling in your chest
  • pain in the arms, neck, jaw, back or stomach
  • for some people the pain and tightness will be severe, while for others it will just feel uncomfortable
  • sweating
  • feeling light-headed
  • becoming short of breath
  • feeling nauseous or vomiting

How is a heart attack treated?

The first port of call for treatment, is for doctors to treat the blocked artery.

There are two main procedures used to open up the blocked blood vessel.

The first, a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is an emergency coronary angioplasty.

It opens the blockage and helps restore blood supply to the heart.

The second treatment, is thrombosis, also known as a “clot buster”.

It involves injecting a drug into the vein to dissolve the blood clot and restore blood supply to the heart that way.  In some cases this procedure can be performed in the ambulance.

While these treatments are common, in some cases they will not be right for the patient and so won’t be performed.  The MD Cardiologist will know the right Rx.

Take good care of your HEART, the engine to the human body!  First do all preventative measures to prevent getting any cardiovascular diseases but if you have cardiovascular diseases then follow your M.D. instructions on any meds if he prescribed them for you, eat the proper foods for a cardiac diet, and balance rest with exercise.   See your cardiologist as he or she recommends.

 

 

QUOTE FOR FRIDAY:

“Malnutrition results from a poor diet or a lack of food. It happens when the intake of nutrients or energy is too high, too low, or poorly balanced.  Undernutrition can lead to delayed growth or wasting, while a diet that provides too much food, but not necessarily balanced, leads to obesity.”

Medical News Today

Malnutrition Awareness Month

Malnutrition involves a dietary deficiency. People may eat too much of the wrong type of food and have malnutrition, but this article will focus on undernutrition, when a person lacks nutrients because they do not consume enough food.

Poor diet may lead to a lack of vitamins, minerals, and other essential substances. Too little protein can lead to kwashiorkor, symptoms of which include a distended abdomen. A lack of vitamin C can result in scurvy.

Scurvy is rare in industrialized nations, but it can affect older people, those who consume excessive quantities of alcohol, and people who do not eat fresh fruits and vegetables. Some infants and children who follow a limited diet for any reason may be prone to scurvy.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 462 million people worldwide are malnourished, and stunted development due to poor diet affects 159 million children globally.

Malnutrition during childhood can lead not only to long-term health problems but also to educational challenges and limited work opportunities in the future. Malnourished children often have smaller babies when they grow up.

It can also slow recovery from wounds and illnesses, and it can complicate diseases such as measles, pneumonia, malaria, and diarrhea. It can leave the body more susceptible to disease.

Malnutrition manifests itself as both over- and under-nutrition, and is currently not diagnosed and treated in time. It leads to serious health problems, including the estimated 60 percent of cardiovascular deaths. Researchers suggest that an accurate training of healthcare professionals may be at the heart of solving this problem.  If malnutrition was treated in time, especially from childhood or earlier adulthood many diseases of cardiac to diabetes II to obesity itself with the side effects it caused to other organs.  I could go on about different diseases but cardiac is an important one since the engine to the body is our heart (the size of your fist).

People only look at nutrients as a number, but not as something with nutritional value. They do not consider the food matrix nor biological function.

Applying nutrition into life deals with the relationship between nutrition and the health and wellbeing of a person to even a population.  Take U.S.A. we are the highest with Obesity.  In U.S.A., look how much emphasis is put on fast food selling or advertising alone and we the people over 50% fall for it and if not daily just too much.  Look at disease in this country that could be avoided due to obesity the cause for other diseases in an individual.  Which by the way didn’t happen over night.  Nobody puts  a magnum-45 to someone’s head to walk into McDonald’s or Wendy’s or KOC with many other fast food companies in U.S.A (that have flown in numbers in other countries) to order there food.  Like alcohol for some the person gets addicted to this kind of food.  To change you need the inspiration to want to with the discipline to do so.

There is another disorder Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is newly-recognized and is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating that occur twice weekly or more for a period of at least six months. During bingeing, a larger than normal amount of food is consumed in a short time frame and the person engaging in the bingeing behavior feels a lack of control over the eating.

In BED, bingeing episodes are associated with at least three characteristics such as eating until uncomfortable, eating when not physically hungry, eating rapidly, eating alone for fear of being embarrassed by how much food is being consumed, or feeling disgusted, depressed or guilty after the episode of overeating. These negative feelings may in turn trigger more bingeing behavior. In addition, although BED behaviors may cause distress by those affected, it is not associated with inappropriate compensatory behaviors such as those found in Bulimia Nervosa or Anorexia Nervosa. Therefore, people with BED often present as either overweight or obese because they consume so many extra calories.

Take the opposite,  Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by weight loss (or lack of appropriate weight gain in growing children); difficulties maintaining an appropriate body weight for height, age, and stature; and, in many individuals, distorted body image. People with anorexia generally restrict the number of calories and the types of food they eat. Some people with the disorder also exercise compulsively, purge via vomiting and laxatives, and/or binge eat.

Anorexia can affect people of all ages, genders, sexual orientations, races, and ethnicities. Historians and psychologists have found evidence of people displaying symptoms of anorexia for hundreds or thousands of years.

Bulimia nervosa is a serious, potentially life-threatening eating disorder characterized by a cycle of bingeing and compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting designed to undo or compensate for the effects of binge eating.

  • Eating, in a discrete period of time (e.g. within any 2-hour period), an amount of food that is definitely larger than most people would eat during a similar period of time and under similar circumstances.
  • A sense of lack of control over eating during the episode (e.g. a feeling that one cannot stop eating or control what or how much one is eating).
  • Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior in order to prevent weight gain, such as self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications, fasting, or excessive exercise.
  • The binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors both occur, on average, at least once a week for three months.
  • Self-evaluation is unduly influenced by body shape and weight.
  • The disturbance does not occur exclusively during episodes of anorexia nervosa.

Instead of going on and on with diseases here is what you eat to resolve the malnutrition (either eating too much or not enough).  So eat the following in moderate amounts:

  • plenty of fruit and vegetables.
  • plenty of bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods.
  • some milk and dairy foods.
  • some meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non dairy sources of protein.

Recommended is to check with your doctor especially since they know your medical history.

It’s up to you to make the move; the internet besides so many companies can help you with just picking up a book on the problem of malnutrition (at a book store to even the public library), if you feel you have malnutrition.  Not sure?  Then go to your general practitioner.

 

 

QUOTE FOR THURSDAY:

“Recent studies suggest that the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease are in a diabetic state, partly due to the decrease in or insensitivity to insulin. There are many similarities in the brains of people with diabetes and the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease; however, diabetes only remains a risk factor.”

Alzheimer Society Canada

Part II Alzheimer’s Disease considered by some as Diabetes 3=Brain Diabetes.

Alzheimer’s Might be “Brain Diabetes”

It’s becoming increasingly clear that the same pathological process that leads to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes may also hold true for your brain. As you over-indulge on sugar and grains, your brain becomes overwhelmed by the consistently high levels of insulin and eventually shuts down its insulin signaling, leading to impairments in your thinking and memory abilities, and eventually causing permanent brain damage.

Regularly consuming more than 25 grams of fructose per day will dramatically increase your risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Consuming too much fructose will inevitably wreak havoc on your body’s ability to regulate proper insulin levels.

Although fructose is relatively “low glycemic” on the front end, it reduces the affinity for insulin for its receptor leading to chronic insulin resistance and elevated blood sugar on the back end. So, while you may not notice a steep increase in blood sugar immediately following fructose consumption, it is likely changing your entire endocrine system’s ability to function properly behind the scenes.

Additionally, fructose has other modes of neurotoxicity, including causing damage to the circulatory system upon which the health of your nervous system depends, as well as profoundly changing your brain’s craving mechanism, often resulting in excessive hunger and subsequent consumption of additional empty carbohydrate-based calories.

In one study from UCLA, researchers found that rats fed a fructose-rich and omega-3 fat deficient diet (similar to what is consumed by many Americans) developed both insulin resistance and impaired brain function in just six weeks.

Plus, when your liver is busy processing fructose (which your liver turns into fat), it severely hampers its ability to make cholesterol, an essential building block of your brain crucial to its health. This is yet another important facet that explains how and why excessive fructose consumption is so detrimental to your health. Decreasing fructose intake is one of the most important moves you can take in decreasing the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in your lifetime.

Tips for avoiding Alzheimer’s Disease is Part 2 tomorrow. 😉

More Tips for Avoiding Alzheimer’s Disease

The beauty of following a healthy diet is that it helps treat and prevent all chronic degenerative diseases, from the common ones like heart disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity and Alzheimer’s to the ones you have never heard of or can’t even pronounce.

The first step is to eat healthy, maintaining exercise balanced with rest and practice healthy habits in addressing Alzheimer’s disease, which is currently at epidemic proportions, with 5.4 million Americans – including one in eight people aged 65 and over – living with the disease.7 By 2050, this is expected to jump to 16 million, and in the next 20 years it is projected that Alzheimer’s will affect one in four Americans. People we need to live healthier if not to help ourselves our future young ones.

In spite of how common memory loss is among Westerners, it is NOT a “normal” part of aging. While even mild “senior moments” may be caused by the same brain lesions associated with Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia, these cognitive changes are by no means inevitable! People who experience very little decline in their cognitive function up until their deaths have been found (post-mortem) to be free of brain lesions, showing that it’s entirely possible to prevent the damage from occurring in the first place and one of the best ways to do this is by leading a healthy lifestyle.

  • Fructose. As mentioned, most everyone will benefit from keeping their total fructose consumed to below 25 grams per day.
  • Improve Magnesium Levels. There is some exciting preliminary research strongly suggesting a decrease in Alzheimer symptoms with increased levels of magnesium in the brain. Unfortunately most magnesium supplements do not pass the blood brain levels, but a new one, magnesium threonate, appears to and holds some promise for the future for treating this condition.
  • Optimize your vitamin D levels with safe sun exposure. Strong links between low levels of vitamin D in Alzheimer’s patients and poor outcomes on cognitive tests have been revealed Researchers believe that optimal vitamin D levels may enhance the amount of important chemicals in your brain and protect brain cells by increasing the effectiveness of the glial cells in nursing damaged neurons back to health.
  • Vitamin D may also exert some of its beneficial effects on Alzheimer’s through its anti-inflammatory and immune-boosting properties. Sufficient vitamin D is imperative for proper functioning of your immune system to combat inflammation that is also associated with Alzheimer’s.
  • Vitamin B12: According to a small Finnish study recently published in the journal Neurology,people who consume foods rich in B12 may reduce their risk of Alzheimer’s in their later years. For each unit increase in the marker of vitamin B12 (holotranscobalamin) the risk of developing Alzheimer’s was reduced by 2 percent. Very high doses of B vitamins have also been found to treat Alzheimer’s disease and reduce memory loss.
  • Eat a nutritious diet, rich in folate. Vegetables, without question, are your best form of folate, and we should all eat plenty of fresh raw veggies every day.
  • High-quality animal-based omega-3 fats, such as krill oil. (I recommend avoiding most fish because, although fish is naturally high in omega-3, most fish are now severely contaminated with mercury.) High intake of the omega-3 fats EPA and DHA help by preventing cell damage caused by Alzheimer’s disease, thereby slowing down its progression, and lowering your risk of developing the disorder.
  • Avoid and remove mercury from your body. Dental amalgam fillings, which are 50% mercury by weight, are one of the major sources of heavy metal toxicity, however you should be healthy prior to having them removed.
  • Avoid aluminum, such as antiperspirants, non-stick cookware, vaccine adjuvants, etc.
  • Exercise regularly. It’s been suggested that exercise can trigger a change in the way the amyloid precursor protein is metabolized,10 thus, slowing down the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s. Exercise also increases levels of the protein PGC-1alpha. Research has also shown that people with Alzheimer’s have less PGC-1alpha in their brain and cells that contain more of the protein produce less of the toxic amyloid protein associated with Alzheimer’s. I would strongly recommend reviewing the Peak Fitness Technique for my specific recommendations.
  • Some say, avoid flu vaccinations as most contain both mercury and aluminum, well-known neurotoxic and immunotoxic agents.
  • Eat plenty of blueberries. Wild blueberries, which have high anthocyanin and antioxidant content, are known to guard against Alzheimer’s and other neurological diseases.
  • Challenge your mind daily. Mental stimulation, especially learning something new, such as learning to play an instrument or a new language, is associated with a decreased risk of Alzheimer’s. Researchers suspect that mental challenge helps to build up your brain, making it less susceptible to the lesions associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Avoid anticholinergic and the statin drugs. Drugs that block acetylcholine, a nervous system neurotransmitter, have been shown to increase your risk of dementia. These drugs include certain nighttime pain relievers, antihistamines, sleep aids, certain antidepressants, medications to control incontinence, and certain narcotic pain relievers.
  • Statin drugs are particularly problematic because they suppress the synthesis of cholesterol, deplete your brain of coenzyme Q10 and neurotransmitter precursors, and prevent adequate delivery of essential fatty acids and fat-soluble antioxidants to your brain by inhibiting the production of the indispensable carrier biomolecule known as low-density lipoprotein.

QUOTE FOR WEDNESDAY:

“However, reevaluation of the older literature revealed that impairments in cerebral glucose utilization and energy metabolism represent very early abnormalities that precede or accompany the initial stages of cognitive impairment12–14 and led us to the concept that impaired insulin signaling has an important role in the pathogenesis of AD and the proposal that AD represents “type 3 diabetes.”

PMC U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institute of Health (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)

Part I Alzheimer’s Disease considered by some as Diabetes 3=Brain Diabetes.

Alzheimers-awareness    alzheimerdisease

At one time Alzheimer’s disease was a disease considered with unknown etiology (or cause). Today it is considered different in the eyes of many in the medical profession. By a Dr. Mercola a physician who founded Mercola.com (Mercola.com is now the world’s top natural health resource site, with over 1.5 million subscribers.) feels this about alzeiher’s disease:

The cause of the debilitating, and fatal, brain disease Alzheimer’s is conventionally said to be a mystery.

While we know that certain diseases, like type 2 diabetes, are definitively connected to the foods you eat, Alzheimer’s is generally thought to strike without warning or reason.

That is, until recently.

Now, a growing body of research suggests there may be a powerful connection between the foods you eat and your risk of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, via similar pathways that cause type 2 diabetes. Some have even re-named Alzheimer’s as “type 3 diabetes.””

Can You Eat Your Way to Alzheimer’s?

In a recent animal study, researchers from Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island were able to induce many of the characteristic brain changes seen with Alzheimer’s disease (disorientation, confusion, inability to learn and remember) by interfering with insulin signaling in their brains.

Know that faulty insulin (and leptin, another hormone) signaling is an underlying cause for insulin resistance, which, of course, typically leads to type 2 diabetes. However, while insulin is usually associated with its role in keeping your blood sugar levels in a healthy range, it also plays a role in brain signaling. When researchers disrupted the proper signaling of insulin in the brain, it resulted in dementia. 

Animal or Human the insulin and the brain in their bodies works the same!

What does this have to do with your diet? Let us go back to one of my articles on diabetes and how it impacts your diet. It states “The foods we eat that contain starches, carbohydrates, calories are made up of sugar. When food reaches our stomach in time digestion starts to take place where these foods are broken down in the stomach into individual or complex sugar molecules ( glucose being one of the most common and important ones). The glucose then passes from our stomach into our bloodstream when it reaches the liver 60 to 80 % of the glucose gets stored in that organ turning glucose into inactive glucose that’s converted to glycogen. The purpose for glycogen is when our glucose is low and our body needing energy we have this extra stored sugar, glycogen, to rely on. This is done by the liver which allows the sugar to be stored and released back into the bloodstream if we need it=energy, since nothing is in our stomach at that time, in that case scenario). When glucose=an active sugar, it is our energy for our cells and tissues and is a sugar ready to be utilized by the body where it is needed, by many organs. Think of a car for one moment, and what makes it run? That would be gas/fuel for it to function. The same principle with glucose in your bloodstream=fuel for the human body so we can function, for without it we wouldn’t survive. That is the problem with a person that has diabetes. They eat, they break the food down, the glucose gets in the blood but the glucose fuel can’t be used due to lack of or NO insulin at all. Insulin allows glucose to pass into our cells and tissues to be used as energy/fuel for the body parts to work. Glucose is used as the principle source of energy (It is used by the brain for energy, the muscles for both energy and some storage.)  The liver one function is for glucose storage=that is where glucose is converted to glycogen, and even stored in fat tissue using it for triglyceride production).  But remember the size of the liver and like a gas tank it stops filling up when full; so if you eat alot in sugar the liver can convert extra sugar not needed for tissues and cells to glycogen for so long.  When the liver has no more room the extra glucose in the bloodstream gets stored elsewhere; it than goes in our fat tissue.  If this is done repeatedly day after day that is how you become obese; but that is another all by itself. Glucose does get sent to other organs for more storage, as well as other body parts making insulin, being the Brain. Insulin plays that vital role in allowing glucose to be distributed throughout the body.

Without insulin the glucose has nowhere to go and this is how diabetes comes on with the obesity (two completely different diagnosis (s)  since the insulin doesn’t pass the glucose into the cell but stays outside the cell.  Due to this it goes in the fat tissue to be stored causing obesity if this process isn’t fixed.

So how does this impact your brain thinking?

The origin of insulin in the brain has been explained from peripheral (outside) or central sources, or both. Regardless of whether insulin is of peripheral origin or produced in the brain, this hormone may act through its own receptors present in the brain. The molecular events through which insulin functions in the brain are the same as those operating in the periphery.

This new focus on the Alzheimer’s/Diabetes/Insulin connection follows a growing recognition of insulin’s role in the brain. Until recently, the hormone was typecast as a regulator of blood sugar, giving the cue for muscles, liver and fat cells to extract sugar from the blood and either use it for energy or store it as fat. We now know that it is also a master multi-tasker: it helps neurons, particularly in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, take up glucose for energy, and it also regulates neurotransmitters, like acetylcholine, which are crucial for memory and learning.” What is effected with Alzheimer’s disease?  Your memory and learning, So your diet plays a big role in Alzheimer’s disease.

Over-consumption of sugars and grains is what ultimately causes your body to be incapable of “hearing” the proper signals from insulin and leptin, leaving you insulin resistant in both body and brain. Alzheimer’s disease was tentatively dubbed “type 3 diabetes” in early 2005 when researchers learned that the pancreas is not the only organ that produces insulin. Your brain also produces insulin, and this brain insulin is necessary for the survival of your brain cells.  Remember insulin allows glucose to pass inside cells which gives energy, being the glucose, for the cells to do their jobs.

If You Have Diabetes, Your Risk of Alzheimer’s Increases Dramatically.

Diabetes is linked to a 65 percent increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s, which may be due, in part, because insulin resistance and/or diabetes appear to accelerate the development of plaque in your brain, which is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s. Separate research has found that impaired insulin response was associated with a 30 percent higher risk of Alzheimer’s disease, and overall dementia and cognitive risks were associated with high fasting serum insulin, insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion and glucose intolerance.

A drop in insulin production in your brain may contribute to the degeneration of your brain cells, mainly by depriving them of glucose, and studies have found that people with lower levels of insulin and insulin receptors in their brain often have Alzheimer’s disease (people with type 2 diabetes often wind up with low levels of insulin in their brains as well). As explained in New Scientist, which highlighted this latest research:

What’s more, it encourages the process through which neurons change shape, make new connections and strengthen others. And it is important for the function and growth of blood vessels, which supply the brain with oxygen and glucose.

As a result, reducing the level of insulin in the brain can immediately impair cognition. Spatial memory, in particular, seems to suffer when you block insulin uptake in the hippocampus.  The hippocampus is the elongated ridges on the floor of each lateral ventricle of the brain, thought to be the center of emotion, memory, and the autonomic nervous system. Conversely, a boost of insulin seems to improve its functioning.

When people frequently gorge on fatty, sugary food, their insulin spikes repeatedly until it sticks at a high level. Muscle, liver and fat cells then stop responding to the hormone insulin, meaning they don’t mop up glucose and fat in the blood. As a result, the pancreas desperately works overtime to make more insulin to control the glucose – and levels of the two molecules skyrocket high levels.

The pancreas can’t keep up with the demand indefinitely, however, as time passes people with type 2 diabetes often end up with abnormally low levels of insulin which is the primary cause of these people having high glucose (hyperglycemia).

Stay tune for part II tomorrow!

QUOTE FOR TUESDAY:

“Sepsis has been named as the most expensive in-patient cost in American hospitals in 2014 averaging more than $18,000 per hospital stay. With over 1.5 million sepsis hospital stays in 2014 per year, that works out to costs of $27 billion each year.”

SEPSIS ALLIANCE (www.sepsis.org)

What is sepsis/SIRS actually?

   

Sepsis is a potentially dangerous or life-threatening medical condition, found in association with a known or suspected infection (usually caused by but not limited to bacteria).

     1.What causes sepsis?

In sepsis the infection has spread from a local area of the body with spreading into a systemic infection, this means the infection is in the blood stream now.  So you have gone from a infection in one spot (local) now in another area of the body, the blood stream (now a systemic infection), that goes to every tissue of our body bringing the infection to effect anywhere in our body from 2 or several organs in the body to death if not treated.

Bacterial infections are the most common cause of sepsis. Sepsis can also be caused by fungal, parasitic, or viral infections. The source of the infection can be any of a number of places throughout the body. Common sites and types of infection that can lead to sepsis include:

  • The abdomen—An inflammation of the appendix (appendicitis), bowel problems, infection of the abdominal cavity (peritonitis), and gallbladder or liver infections.  If spreads the peritoneum (The serous membrane lining the cavity of the abdomen and covering the abdominal organs.)  Through the membrane the infection spreads to a abdominal organ or organs.
  • The central nervous system—Inflammation or infections of the brain or the spinal cord, easy to get into the bloodstream.
  • The lungs—Infections such as pneumonia, our lungs give our blood oxygen so easy for the infection to spread into our bloodstream.
  • The skin—Bacteria can enter skin through wounds or skin inflammations, or through the openings made with intravenous (IV) catheters (tubes inserted into the body to administer or drain fluids). Conditions such as cellulitis (inflammation of the skin’s connective tissue) can cause sepsis.
  • The urinary tract (kidneys or bladder)—Urinary tract infections are especially likely if the patient has a urinary catheter to drain urine.

    Sepsis can strike anyone, but their are those at particular risk.

Sepsis has to show signs and symptoms to fulfill at least two of the following criteria of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS):

  • elevated heart rate (tachycardia) >90 beats per minute at rest, your heart is fighting this infection.
  • body temperature either high (>100.4 F or 38 C) usually the case at first or low (<96.8 F or 36 C), the body now
  • increased respiratory rate of >20 breaths per minute or a reduced PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood level)
  • abnormal white blood cell count (>12,000 cells/µL or <4,000 cells/µL or >10% bands [an immature type of white blood cell])

     2.Who is at risk for sepsis?

  • People with weakened immune systems
  • Patients who are in the hospital
  • People with pre-existing infections or medical conditions
  • People with severe injuries, such as large burns or bullet wounds
  • People with a genetic tendency for sepsis
  • The very old or very young.

    3.What are the symptoms of sepsis?

  • Decreased urine output
  • Fast heart rate
  • Fever
  • Or the opposite Hypothermia (very low body temperature)
  • Shaking
  • Chills
  • Warm skin or a skin rash
  • Confusion or delirium
  • Hyperventilation (rapid breathing)A person may have sepsis if he or she has:

    4.How is sepsis diagnosed?

  • A high or low white blood cell count
  • A low platelet count
  • Acidosis (too much acid in the blood); in the hospital what is checked is lactic acid blood level.
  • A blood culture that is positive for bacteria
  • Abnormal kidney or liver functionm

     5.TREATMENT:

  • Patients who meet the above criteria on symtoms have sepsis and are also termed septic.  In acute hospitals if 2 of these infections are present in the patient a “Septic Code” is called to get pt on antibiotics 2 usually that include Vancomycin, with IVFs started continuously, blood tests including bacterial culture x2, to the ICU where closely monitored, on telemetry.  Keep the pt continuously clean.
  • The most important intervention in sepsis is quick diagnosis and prompt treatment. Patients diagnosed with severe sepsis are usually placed in the intensive care unit (ICU) of the hospital for special treatment. The doctor will first try to identify the source and the type of infection, and then administer antibiotics to treat the infection. (Note: antibiotics are ineffective against infections caused by viruses; if anything what is used is antiviral medications.)
  • The doctor also administers IV fluids to prevent blood pressure from dropping too low. In some cases, vasopressor medications (which constrict blood vessels) are needed to achieve an adequate blood pressure. Some patients are given new drug therapies, such as activated protein C (APC). And finally, if organ failures occur, appropriate supportive care is provided (for example, dialysis for kidney failure, mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure, etc.).
  • Commonly what is used when initially sepsis is diagnosed is Vancomycin with other antibiotics like Imipenum, Cefepime, and others depending on what the blood culture results show as the microorganism.  Antibiotics with Sepsis and SIRS is caused by a bacterial infection (many times it is).