Archive | June 2017

QUOTE FOR FRIDAY:

“According to the Mayo Clinic, the top health problems in America vary slightly between men and women. Men are more likely to commit suicide, and it is the eighth most common health problem for men. Men and women both need to be concerned, however, about the health problems that are common to both of them.”

Livestrong.com

 

KNOW THE FACTS OF HEALTH TOP ISSUES IN THE U.S.A.

women problems in US      th3YVKK6L3Health C

Americans include two health-related issues among the 10 most important problems facing the U.S., according to a recent Gallup survey. Healthcare in general ranked fourth on the list, with Ebola coming in at no. 8. But is Ebola really among the biggest health problems for Americans? Not when we look at the chances of actually being infected.  Now Legionnaires disease but look at the main health issues we face that need to get under control and with some worse than an epidemic but a common health problem daily in the MD office or in the hospital.

So, what are the actual biggest health problems that Americans face? One way to answer this question is to look at what drugs are prescribed the most. Here are the seven top health problems based on the most-prescribed drugs in the U.S., according to Medscape’s analysis of data provided by IMS Health.

1. Hypothyroidism

AbbVie’s (ABBV) Synthroid ranks at the top of the list of most-prescribed drugs. Synthroid is used to treat hypothyroidism, a condition caused by an underactive thyroid gland.

The American Thyroid Association estimates that 2%-3% of Americans have pronounced hypothyroidism, while 10%-15% have a mild version of the disease. Hypothyroidism occurs more frequently in women, especially women over age 60. Around half of Americans with the condition don’t realize that they have hypothyroidism.

2. High cholesterol and high triglycerides

Coming in at a close second on the list is AstraZeneca’s (AZN ) Crestor. The drug is used to help control high cholesterol and high triglyceride levels.

According to the American Heart Association, nearly 99 million Americans age 20 and over have high cholesterol. Elevated cholesterol levels are one of the major risk factors for heart attacks and strokes. The problem is that you won’t know if you have high cholesterol unless you get tested — and around one in three Americans haven’t had their cholesterol levels checked in the last five years.

3. Heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease

AstraZeneca also claims the third most prescribed drug in the nation — Nexium. The “purple pill” helps treat hearburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, also commonly referred to as acid reflux.

Around 20% of Americans have GERD, according to the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. A lot of people take over-the-counter medications, but that’s not enough for many others. Medscape reported that over 18.6 million prescriptions of Nexium were filled between July 2013 and June 2014.

4. Breathing disorders

The next two highly prescribed drugs treat breathing disorders. GlaxoSmithKline’s (GSK ) Ventolin HFA is used by asthma patients, while the company’s Advair Diskus treats asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD.

More than 25 million Americans have asthma. Around 7 million of these patients are children. Meanwhile, COPD, which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, ranks as the third-leading cause of death in the U.S.

5. High blood pressure

Novartis (NVS) claims the next top-prescribed drug with Diovan. The drug treats high blood pressure by relaxing and widening blood vessels, thereby allowing blood to flow more readily.

Around one-third of American adults have high blood pressure. Many don’t know that they are affected, because the condition doesn’t usually manifest symptoms for a long time. However, high blood pressure can eventually lead to other serious health issues, including heart and kidney problems.

6. Diabetes

Several highly prescribed drugs combat diabetes, with Sanofi’s (SNY) Lantus Solostar taking the top spot for the condition. Lantus Solostar is a long-acting basal insulin that is used for type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

According to the National Diabetes Statistics Report released in June 2014, 29.1 million Americans had diabetes in 2012. That’s a big jump from just two years earlier, when 25.8 million Americans had the disease. Diabetes ranks as the seventh leading cause of death in the U.S.

7. Depression and anxiety

Eli Lilly’s Cymbalta fell just below Lantus Solostar in number of prescriptions. Cymbalta is the leading treatment for depression and generalized anxiety disorder.

The Anxiety and Depression Association of America estimates that 14.8 million Americans ages 18 and older suffer from a major depressive disorder each year. Around 3.3 million have persistent depressive disorder, a form of depression that lasts for two or more years. Generalized anxiety disorder affects around 6.8 million adults in the U.S.

If you want to panic of a real large amount of what we have regarding disease or illnesses in our country look at problems one through seven.

QUOTE FOR THURSDAY:

“Diabetes can cause serious health complications including heart disease, blindness, kidney failure, and lower-extremity amputations.Risk factors that increase your chance of getting Pneumonia include: COPD, Smoking, Stroke, Dementia.”
American Diabetes Association/MedicinePlus.gov.

QUOTE FOR WEDNESDAY:

 
“Accidents, also referred to as unintentional injuries, are at present the 5th leading cause of death in the US and the leading cause of death for those between the ages 1 to 44. For people with Alzheimer’s disease, the damage and death of neurons eventually impair the ability to carry out basic bodily functions such as walking and swallowing. High blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking are major risk factors for stroke. About half of Americans (49%) have at least one of these three risk factor.”
 
CDC centers for disease control/www.alz.org/American Stoke Association

QUOTE FOR TUESDAY:

“Top leading causes of death for most people can be prevented but choose not to change their life styles or eating habits or activity/exercising way of living but if they did their life would probably last longer being healthier.”

CDC Center for Disease Control

 

QUOTE FOR MONDAY:

“Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the US and also the leading cause of death worldwide. More than half of the deaths that occur as a result of heart disease are in men.”

American Heart Association

QUOTE FOR THE WEEKEND:

“Ever heard of drinking water to lose weight? The diet tactic actually works, along with eating foods that contain a lot of water, like fruits and veggies.”

Health.com

QUOTE FOR FRIDAY:

“A multi hit theory behind the progression of SIRS to organ dysfunction and possibly multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). In this theory, the event that initiates the SIRS cascade primes the pump. With each additional event, an altered or exaggerated response occurs, leading to progressive illness.”

U.S. National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health

Part II Not a new problem in hospitals=Sepsis! It even got Patty Duke 3/29/2016!.

Patty Duke and sepsissepsismultihit

               sepsis inflammatory process

Part 3 talks to you about the multi-hit theory of SIRS with Inflammatory Cascade of SIRS and lastly the coagulation process in SIRS.   It also tells you an extensive amount of infectious and non-infectious causes of SIRS. Lastly the key antidote to SIRS.

Multi-hit theory

A multi hit theory behind the progression of SIRS to organ dysfunction and possibly multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). In this theory, the event that initiates the SIRS cascade primes the pump. With each additional event, an altered or exaggerated response occurs, leading to progressive illness. The key to preventing the multiple hits is adequate identification of the ETIOLOGY or CAUSE of SIRS and appropriate resuscitation and therapy.

Inflammatory cascade

Trauma, inflammation, or infection leads to the activation of the inflammatory cascade. Initially, a pro-inflammatory activation occurs, but almost immediately thereafter a reactive suppressing anti-inflammatory response occurs. This SIRS usually manifests itself as increased systemic expression of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory species. When SIRS is mediated by an infectious insult, the inflammatory cascade is often initiated by endotoxin or exotoxin. Tissue macrophages, monocytes, mast cells, platelets, and endothelial cells are able to produce a multitude of cytokines. The cytokines tissue necrosis factor–alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) are released first and initiate several cascades.

The release of certain factors without getting into medical specific terms they ending line induces the production of other pro-inflammatory cytokines, worsening the condition.

Some of these factors are the primary pro-inflammatory mediators. In research it suggests that glucocorticoids may function by inhibit-ing certain factors that have been shown to be released in large quantities within 1 hour of an insult and have both local and systemic effects. In studies they have shown that certain cytokines given individually produce no significant hemodynamic response but that they cause severe lung injury and hypotension. Others responsible for fever and the release of stress hormones (norepinephrine, vasopressin, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system).

Other cytokines, stimulate the release of acute-phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and pro-calcitonin.

The pro-inflammatory interleukins either function directly on tissue or work via secondary mediators to activate the coagulation cascade and the complement cascade and the release of nitric oxide, platelet-activating factor, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes.

High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a protein present in the cytoplasm and nuclei in a majority of cell types. In response to infection or injury, as is seen with SIRS, HMGB1 is secreted by innate immune cells and/or released passively by damaged cells. Thus, elevated serum and tissue levels of HMGB1 would result from many of the causes of SIRS.

HMGB1 acts as a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine and is involved in delayed endotoxin lethality and sepsis.

Numerous pro-inflammatory polypeptides are found within the complement cascade. It is thought they are felt to contribute directly to the release of additional cytokines and to cause vasodilatation and increasing vascular permeability. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes incite endothelial damage, leading to multi-organ failure.

Polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) from critically ill patients with SIRS have been shown to be more resistant to activation than PMNs from healthy donors, but, when stimulated, demonstrate an exaggerated micro-bicidal response (agents that kill microbes). This may represent an auto-protective mechanism in which the PMNs in the already inflamed host may avoid excessive inflammation, thus reducing the risk of further host cell injury and death.[4]

Coagulation

The correlation between inflammation and coagulation is critical to understanding the potential progression of SIRS. IL-1 and TNF-α directly affect endothelial surfaces, leading to the expression of tissue factor. Tissue factor initiates the production of thrombin, thereby promoting coagulation, and is a proinflammatory mediator itself. Fibrinolysis is impaired by IL-1 and TNF-α via production of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Pro-inflammatory cytokines also disrupt the naturally occurring anti-inflammatory mediators anti-thrombin and activated protein-C (APC).

If unchecked, this coagulation cascade leads to complications of micro-vascular thrombosis, including organ dysfunction. The complement system also plays a role in the coagulation cascade. Infection-related pro-coagulant activity is generally more severe than that produced by trauma.

What the causes of SIRS can be:

The etiology of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is broad and includes infectious and noninfectious conditions, surgical procedures, trauma, medications, and therapies.

The following is partial list of the infectious causes of SIRS:

  • Bacterial sepsis
  • Burn wound infections
  • Candidiasis
  • Cellulitis
  • Cholecystitis
  • Community-acquired pneumonia
  • Diabetic foot infection
  • Erysipelas
  • Infective endocarditis
  • Influenza
  • Intra-abdominal infections (eg, diverticulitis, appendicitis)
  • Gas gangrene
  • Meningitis
  • Nosocomial pneumonia
  • Pseudomembranous colitis
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Septic arthritis
  • Toxic shock syndrome
  • Urinary tract infections (male and female)
  • *The following is a partial list of the noninfectious causes of SIRS:
  • Acute mesenteric ischemia
  • Adrenal insufficiency
  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Burns
  • Chemical aspiration
  • Cirrhosis
  • Cutaneous vasculitis
  • Dehydration
  • Drug reaction
  • Electrical injuries
  • Erythema multiforme
  • Hemorrhagic shock
  • Hematologic malignancy
  • Intestinal perforation
  • Medication side effect (eg, from theophylline)
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Pancreatitis
  • Seizure
  • Substance abuse – Stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamines
  • Surgical procedures
  • Toxic epidermal necrolysis
  • Transfusion reactions
  • Upper gastrointestinal bleeding
  • VasculitisThe treatment is don’t get it since it is hard to get rid of especially for people over 65 and in hospitals.  There is no one Rx for it.  If you’re unfortunate enough to be diagnosed with SIRS the sooner you get diagnosed with it including being in stage one as opposed to three the higher the odds the turn out will be for you.  Again the key is prevention; don’t get it. There is no one antidote to this SIRS.
  • PREVENTION IS THE KEY ANTIDOTE!   So stay healthy and out of  hospitals!