Archive | March 2016

Part II Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month – Treatment on stages O and I of colorectal cancer.

colorectal-cANCER PERCENTAGE IN RISKSCOLORECTAL CANCER 2

Part II Treatment & Care

Many colon cancer treatment options are available for colorectal cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Here’s what to expect from each type of treatment and tips for recovery.

Polyp Removal and Other Precancerous Conditions

Precancerous conditions of the colon or rectum are changes to cells that make them more likely to develop into cancer. These conditions are not yet cancer, but there is a higher chance these abnormal changes will become colorectal cancer.

The most common precancerous conditions of the colon or rectum area:

adenomas

hereditary colorectal syndromes

If you have a precancerous condition, you will likely have regular follow-up and screening tests to find cancer as early as possible if it develops. Some precancerous conditions can be treated with surgery to help reduce the risk that they will become cancer.

Colorectal Cancer Treatment

Stages of the cancer with TNM system for colorectal cancer helps determine the RX.

The most commonly used colorectal cancer staging system is known as the TNM system, which has been established by the American Joint Committee on Cancer. The TNM staging system looks at three key factors to determine the stage of cancer:

  • Tumor (T) looks at how far the primary tumor has grown into the wall of the colon or rectum, and if it has expanded into nearby areas.
  • Lymph node (N) examines the extent of the cancer spread to nearby lymph nodes.
  • Metastasis (M) refers to whether cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs or brain.

A number (0-4 stages) or the letter X is assigned to each factor. Using this colorectal cancer staging system, a higher number indicates increasing severity. For instance, a T1 score indicates a smaller tumor than a T2 score. The letter X means the information could not be assessed.

Stages of colorectal cancer diagnosis occurs in conjunction with the following TNM categories:

  • T1-T2: If the cancer has grown through the muscularis mucosa and into the submucosa, it is considered T1. Or, if the cancer has grown into the muscularis propria, then it is classified as T2.
  • N0: The cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.
  • M0: There has been no spreading to organs or other nearby areas
  • Stage I colorectal cancer treatments

Once the T, N and M scores have been assigned, an overall stage is determined, and thus treatment options can be explored.

Here’s a quick rundown of the options available for colorectal cancer treatment from surgery to cutting-edge biologic therapy.

Colorectal Cancer: Treatment by Stages

STAGE 0 (IN SITU) Colorectal Cancer Treatment

Surgery for colon cancer

  • Polypectomy: snaring and removing polyps containing cancer during a colonoscopy.
  • Local excision: removal of flat colon growths “piecemeal” during colonoscopy.
  • Open abdominal surgery to remove cancer, part of colon, and nearby lymph nodes in high risk situations where:
    • There is a spread to polyp stalk
    • There is spread to lymphatic vessels (not lymph nodes)
    • Cells look very abnormal under the microscope (high grade)
    • Surgical margins (edge of tissue) contain cancer cells or can’t be evaluated or contain cancer cells.
    • Local excision would be too time-consuming or difficult to perform.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is not recommended for stage 0 colon cancer.

Stage I Colorectal Cancer Treatment

Surgery

Colectomy (resection): Abdominal surgery to remove the section of colon where the tumor is located, tissue containing blood and lymph vessels surrounding the colon (mesentery), healthy tissue margins on either side, and at least 12 lymph nodes, if possible. Then the remaining ends of colon are reconnected with sutures or staples. This connection is called an anastomosis.

Open colectomy: An incision is made in the abdomen, surgery performed through the opening, and the incision closed with sutures and/or staples.

Laparoscopic colectomy: Three small keyhole incisions are made to insert a lighted instrument and specially designed surgical instruments that can be manipulated within the abdomen. Sometimes an incision is made just long enough for the surgeon’s hand to assist during laparoscopy.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is not recommended for stage I colon cancer.

Part III on continuation of treatments of other stages of this condition (Stage II & III)

QUOTE ON WEDNESDAY:

“Most colon cancers develop first as polyps, which are abnormal growths inside the colon or rectum that may later become cancerous if not removed.”

Colon Cancer Alliance

 

Part I Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month

colorectal cancer2 colorectal cancer1

Colorectal cancer is cancer that develops in the tissues of the colon and/or rectum. The colon and the rectum are both found in the lower part of the gastrointestinal (digestive) system. They form a long, muscular tube called the large intestine (or large bowel). The colon absorbs food and water and stores waste. The rectum is responsible for passing waste from the body.

If the cancer began in the colon, which is the first four to five feet of the large intestine, it may be referred to as colon cancer. If the cancer began in the rectum, which is the last several inches of the large intestine leading to the anus, it is called rectal cancer.

Colorectal cancer starts in the inner lining of the colon and/or rectum, slowly growing through some or all of its layers. It typically starts as a growth of tissue called a polyp. A particular type of polyp, called an adenoma, can then develop into cancer.

Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of colorectal cancer. Other colorectal cancers include gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, primary colorectal lymphoma, leiomyosarcoma, melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the colon or rectum, it is called colorectal cancer. Sometimes it is called colon cancer, for short.

Colorectal cancer affects men and women of all racial and ethnic groups, and is most often found in people aged 50 years or older. In the United States, it is the third most common cancer for men and women.

Of cancers that affect both men and women, colorectal cancer is the second leading cancer killer in the United States, but it doesn’t have to be.

Colorectal cancer screening saves lives.

Screening can find precancerous polyps—abnormal growths in the colon or rectum—so that they can be removed before turning into cancer. Screening also helps find colorectal cancer at an early stage, when treatment often leads to a cure. About nine out of every 10 people whose colorectal cancers are found early and treated appropriately are still alive five years later.

If you are aged 50 or older, get screened now. If you think you may be at higher than average risk for colorectal cancer, speak with your doctor about getting screened early.

While screening rates have increased in the U.S., not enough people are getting screened for colorectal cancer. In 2012, 65% of U.S. adults were up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening; 7% had been screened, but were not up-to-date; and 28% had never been screened.

Your risk of getting colorectal cancer increases as you get older. More than 90% of cases occur in people who are 50 years old or older.

Other risk factors include having:

*Inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, or ulcerative colitis.

*A personal or family history of colorectal cancer or colorectal polyps.

*A genetic syndrome such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome).

Lifestyle factors that may contribute to an increased risk of colorectal cancer include—

  • Lack of regular physical activity.
  • Low fruit and vegetable intake.
  • A low-fiber and high-fat diet.
  • Overweight and obesity.
  • Alcohol consumption.
  • Tobacco use. *Rectal bleeding or blood in your stool.
  • *Diagnosing colorectal cancer:Treatment & Care
  • Tests. Finding colon cancer early is key to beating it. That’s why doctors recommend a yearly fecal occult blood test, which tests for invisible blood in the stool, an early sign of colon cancer. One of the best tools for detecting colorectal cancer is a colonoscopy.
  • *Persistent abdominal discomfort, such as cramps, gas or pain.
  • *A change in your bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation or a change in the consistency of your stool, that lasts longer than four weeks.
  • *Signs and symptoms of colon-rectal cancer include:
  • Many colon cancer treatment options are available for colorectal cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Here’s what to expect from each type of treatment and tips for recovery.

*Treatment= Get details on treatment on Part II tomorrow’s article Thurs.

Colon Polyp Removal and Other Precancerous Conditions

Learn how colon polyps are removed and why it’s so important to stay on top of these and other precancerous conditions.

Colorectal Cancer Treatment

Here’s a quick rundown of the options available for colorectal cancer treatment from surgery to cutting-edge biologic therapy.

Colon Cancer: Treatment by Stage

Here you’ll find detailed information on how the various stages of colon cancer are treated — from stage 0 to stage IV and also recurrent colon cancer.

Rectal Cancer Treatment by Stage

Here you’ll find detailed information on how the various stages of rectal cancer are treated — from stage 0 to stage IV and also recurrent rectal cancer.

Colon Cancer Chemotherapy

Learn about the different ways chemotherapy is used to treat colon cancer and rectal cancer and the side effects of commonly used chemotherapy drugs.

QUOTE FOR TUESDAY:

“Hemophilia is one of the more common inherited types of bleeding disorders. Currently, about 20,000 individuals in the United States have hemophilia. Although hemophilia most commonly occurs in men, it can also occur in women.”

National Hemophilia Foundation

 

QUOTE FOR THE FRIDAY:

“It’s not easy to diagnose because depending where the endometrial deposits are, the symptoms can be quite different. It’s an unrecognized problem among teenage girls, and it’s something that every young woman who has painful menstruation should be aware of … it’s a condition that is curable if it’s caught early.

[Author Hilary Mantel on being asked about being a writer with endometriosis, Nov 2012 NPR interview]”

The Month of Endometriosis.

possible-sites-of-endometriosis

The uterus is a female reproductive organ located between the bladder and the rectum, in the pelvic area. The uterus has three layers: the inner lining (endometrium); the middle muscular layer (myometrium); and the outer layer (perimetrium). The uterus is connected to the fallopian tubes, the cervix and (via the cervix) the vagina.

Endometriosis is a painful, chronic disease that affects at least 6.3 million women and girls in the U.S., 1 million in Canada, and millions more worldwide. It occurs when tissue like that which lines the uterus (tissue called the endometrium) is found outside the uterus — usually in the abdomen on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and ligaments that support the uterus; the area between the vagina and rectum; the outer surface of the uterus; and the lining of the pelvic cavity. Other sites for these endometrial growths may include the bladder, bowel, vagina, cervix, vulva, and in abdominal surgical scars. Less commonly they are found in the lung, arm, thigh, and other locations.

This misplaced tissue develops into growths or lesions which respond to the menstrual cycle in the same way that the tissue of the uterine lining does: each month the tissue builds up, breaks down, and sheds. Menstrual blood flows from the uterus and out of the body through the vagina, but the blood and tissue shed from endometrial growths has no way of leaving the body. This results in internal bleeding, breakdown of the blood and tissue from the lesions, and inflammation — and can cause pain, infertility, scar tissue formation, adhesions, and bowel problems.

Pain before and during period: Pain with sex, Infertility, Fatigue, Painful urination during periods, Painful bowel movements during periods and Other Gastrointestinal upsets such as diarrhea, constipation, nausea.

In addition, many women with endometriosis suffer from:

  • Allergies
  • Chemical sensitivities
  • Frequent yeast infections

Diagnosis is considered uncertain until proven by laparoscopy, a minor surgical procedure done under anesthesia. A laparoscopy usually shows the location, size, and extent of the growths. This helps the doctor and patient make better treatment choices.

What Causes Endometriosis?

The cause of endometriosis is unknown. The retrograde menstruation theory (transtubal migration theory) suggests that during menstruation some of the menstrual tissue backs up through the fallopian tubes, implants in the abdomen, and grows.  Some experts believe that all women experience some menstrual tissue backup and that an immune system problem or a hormonal problem allows this tissue to grow in the women who develop endometriosis.

Another theory suggests that endometrial tissue is distributed from the uterus to other parts of the body through the lymph system or through the blood system. A genetic theory suggests that it may be carried in the genes in certain families or that some families may have predisposing factors to endometriosis.

Surgical transplantation has also been cited in many cases where endometriosis is found in abdominal scars, although it has also been found in such scars when accidental implantation seems unlikely.

Another theory suggests that remnants of tissue from when the woman was an embryo may later develop into endometriosis, or that some adult tissues retain the ability they had in the embryo stage to transform reproductive tissue in certain circumstances.

Research by the Endometriosis Association revealed a startling link between dioxin (TCCD) exposure and the development of endometriosis. Dioxin is a toxic chemical byproduct of pesticide manufacturing, bleached pulp and paper products, and medical and municipal waste incineration. The EA discovered a colony of rhesus monkeys that had developed endometriosis after exposure to dioxin. 79% of the monkeys exposed to dioxin developed endometriosis, and, in addition, the more dioxin exposure, the more severe the endometriosis.

QUOTE FOR THURSDAY:

“Since 1962, the President of the United States has proclaimed the third week of March as National Poison Prevention Week to raise awareness about the dangers of poisonings and how to prevent them.”

AAPCC – American Association of Poison Control Centers

Awareness week on poisoning.

poisoning2poisoning1

 

In 2013, America’s 55 poison centers received over 3.1 million calls. Of those, about 2.2 million were calls about poison exposures ranging from carbon monoxide to snake bites to food poisoning. The rest were calls for information.

Chemicals in and around the home can poison people or pets and can cause long-term health effects. Every 13 seconds, a poison control center in the United States answers a call about a possible poisoning. More than 90% of these exposures occur in the home. Poisoning can result from medicines, pesticides, household cleaning products, carbon monoxide, and lead.

The major source of lead poisoning among U.S. children is lead-based paint and dust with lead. All houses built before 1978 are likely to contain some lead in the paint. However, it is the flaking, peeling paint that causes a problem. Other sources of lead in the home may include traditional home remedies, ceramics, toys and toy jewelry, lead-contaminated soil, lead water pipes, and lead solder used in plumbing. Lead poisoning occurs when lead builds up in the body, often over a period of months or years. Even small amounts of lead can cause serious health problems. Children under the age of 6 are especially vulnerable to lead poisoning, which can severely affect mental and physical development. At very high levels, lead poisoning can be fatal. While treatment is available for lead poisoning, taking some simple precautions can help protect yourself and your family.

Lead-based paint and lead-contaminated dust in older buildings are the most common sources of lead poisoning in children. Other sources include contaminated air, water and soil. Adults who work with batteries, do home renovations or work in auto repair shops also may be exposed to lead. It couldn’t hurt to ask you MD if you should get a lead level taken yearly or less for people who live around lead or the area having a history of it or adults in the work force working need lead products.

Lead poisoning symptoms in children

The signs and symptoms of lead poisoning in children may include:

Developmental delay-Learning difficulties-Irritability-Loss of appetite-Weight loss-Sluggishness and fatigue-Abdominal pain-Vomiting-Constipation-Hearing loss

Lead poisoning symptoms in newborns

-Babies who are exposed to lead before birth may experience:

-Learning difficulties & Slowed growth

Lead poisoning symptoms in adults

-Although children are primarily at risk, lead poisoning is also dangerous for adults. Signs and symptoms in adults may include:

High blood pressure-Abdominal pain-Constipation-Joint pains-Muscle pain-Declines in mental functioning-Pain, numbness or tingling of the extremities -Headache-Memory loss-Mood disorders-Reduced sperm count, abnormal sperm-Miscarriage or premature birth in pregnant women.

ENDING LINE is knowing how to prevent leading causes of child injury, like poisoning, helps keep our children safe and secure and helps them live to their full potential.

We all want to keep our children safe and secure and help them live to their full potential. Knowing how to prevent leading causes of child injury, like poisoning, is a step toward this goal.

Every day, over 300 children in the United States ages 0 to 19 are treated in an emergency department, and two children die, as a result of being poisoned. It’s not just chemicals in your home marked with clear warning labels that can be dangerous to children.

Everyday items in your home, such as household cleaners and medicines, can be poisonous to children as well. Active, curious children will often investigate—and sometimes try to eat or drink—anything that they can get into.

Thankfully, there are ways you can help poison-proof your home and protect the children you love.

Prevention Tips:

Lock them up. Keep medicines and toxic products, such cleaning solutions, in their original packaging where children can’t see or get them.

Know the number. Put the nationwide poison control center phone number, 1-800-222-1222, on or near every telephone in your home and program it into your cell phone. Call the poison control center if you think a child has been poisoned but they are awake and alert; they can be reached 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Call 911 if you have a poison emergency and your child has collapsed or is not breathing.

Read the label. Follow label directions and read all warnings when giving medicines to children.

Don’t keep it if you don’t need it. Safely dispose of unused, unneeded, or expired prescription drugs and over the counter drugs, vitamins, and supplements. To dispose of medicines, mix them with coffee grounds or kitty litter and throw them away. You can also turn them in at a local take-back program or during National Drug Take-Back events.

In general, Health and Safety Tips:

Make sure your child does not have access to peeling paint or chewable surfaces painted with lead-based paint.

Use and store chemicals, household cleaning products, and pesticides according to label instructions and out of reach of children

Have gas appliances professionally installed, vented outside, and checked annually for carbon monoxide leaks.

Take all medicines as directed and store out of reach of children.

Turn on fans and open windows to help ventilate the area when using household cleaners and chemicals.

______________________________________________________

Deaths from drug overdose have been rising steadily over the past two decades and have become the leading cause of injury death in the United States.

The United States is in the midst of an opioid overdose killed more than 28,000 people in 2014, more than any year on record. At least half of all opioid overdose deaths involve a prescription opioid. More people died from drug overdoses in 2014 than in any year on record. The majority of drug overdose deaths (more than six out of ten) involved an opioid. Opioids include opiates, an older term that refers to such drugs derived from opium, including morphine itself. Other opioids are semi-synthetic and synthetic drugs such as hydrocodone, oxycodone and fentanyl; antagonist drugs such as naloxone and endogenous peptides such as the endorphins. Opioid drugs are predominantly central nervous system agents, most often used medically to relieve pain.   So again its restated to take meds as prescribed and keep out of reach for children especially (babies/children out of reach to locked up-Better safe than sorry).